Table 1

Characteristics of participants in provinces with and without government-funded insulin pump programs

CharacteristicPump funding program (n=1320)No pump funding program (n=239)P value
Demographic
Age (years)40 [31, 49]41 [33, 49]0.33
Female, n (%)617 (46.7)117 (49)0.53
Provider age (years)51 [41, 59]47 [37, 55]<0.0001
Provider sex, n (%)0.0003
 Female569 (43.3)78 (32.6)
 Male718 (54.7)161 (67.4)
Provider type, n (%)0.007
 Family physician1296 (98.2)228 (95.4)
 Nurse practitioner17 (1.3)10 (4.2)
Clinical
Hypertension, n (%)1046 (79.2)167 (69.9)0.001
Depression, n (%)437 (33.1)61 (25.5)0.02
Osteoarthritis, n (%)96 (7.3)73 (30.5)<0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)77.04±9.8978.51±9.390.1
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)124.77±16.57129.23±17.410.003
BMI (kg/m2)29.22±8.1231.33±9.930.04
BMI category0.0005
 BMI ≤18.5597 (45.2%)133 (55.7%)
 BMI 18.5–24.9237 (18.0%)19 (8.0%)
 BMI 25–29.9207 (15.7%)41 (17.2%)
 BMI≥30279 (21.1%)46 (19.3%)
Laboratory
HbA1c (%)8.44±1.998.96±2.040.001
Creatinine (μmol/L)73 [62, 88]69 [55, 83]0.0004
ACR (mg/mmol)1.21 [0.58, 5.67]1.20 [0.40, 3.70]0.09
Medications
Statin, n (%)275 (20.8)52 (21.8)0.745
ACEi/ARB, n (%)257 (19.5)53 (22.2)0.33
Risk factors
Smoking status, n (%)<0.0001
 Current156 (11.8)6 (2.5)
 Never188 (14.2)0 (0)
 Past245 (18.6)≤5
Alcohol status, n (%)<0.0001
 Current231 (17.5)48 (20.1)
 Never21 (1.6)≤5
 Past194 (14.7)≤5
Socioeconomic
Income quintile, n (%)0.20
 1 (lowest)301 (24.9)24 (17.7)
 2244 (20.2)25 (18.4)
 3250 (20.7)38 (27.9)
 4214 (17.7)26 (19.1)
 5 (highest)201 (16.6)23 (16.9)
Urban residence, n (%)1049 (81.0)167 (70.2)0.0001
  • Data presented as means±SD, median [IQR], or frequency (%). Continuous variables were compared by Student’s t-tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum depending on normality of distribution, and categorical variables were compared by χ2.

  • Data were missing for provider age (n=197, 13%), provider sex (n=33, 2%), provider type (n=8, 0.5%), diastolic blood pressure (n=263, 17%), systolic blood pressure (n=263, 17%), BMI (n=719, 46%), HbA1c (n=259, 17%), total cholesterol (n=573, 37%), LDL-C (n=620, 40%), HDL-C (n=545, 35%), triglyceride (n=571, 37%), creatinine (n=304, 20%), ACR (n=748, 48%), income quintile (n=213, 13.7%), and urban residence (n=26, 1.7%).

  • ACEi, ACE inhibitor; ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.