Table 1

Sample characteristics

CharacteristicOverallLow-income countriesMiddle-income countries
EdentulismYes6.03.410.3
DiabetesYes2.92.04.5
Age (years)Mean (SD)38.4 (16.0)36.8 (15.3)41.1 (16.8)
SexMale49.350.647.2
EducationNo formal28.140.28.0
Primary32.233.130.5
Secondary29.920.645.3
Tertiary9.96.116.2
SmokingYes26.726.926.5
Heavy drinkingYes4.92.29.2
Self-careMean (SD)11.0 (23.4)12.1 (24.2)9.8 (22.4)
Pain/discomfortMean (SD)26.3 (27.0)26.0 (27.2)26.6 (26.7)
CognitionMean (SD)20.3 (26.0)20.1 (25.7)20.6 (26.2)
Interpersonal activitiesMean (SD)13.9 (24.0)13.5 (24.0)14.4 (24.1)
Sleep/energyMean (SD)22.1 (26.1)20.6 (26.0)23.7 (26.2)
AffectMean (SD)25.4 (27.7)24.1 (28.0)27.0 (27.3)
Perceived stressMean (SD)34.5 (27.2)36.8 (28.5)31.9 (25.4)
  • Data are % unless otherwise stated.

  • Health status (ie, self-care, pain/discomfort, cognition, interpersonal activities, sleep/energy, affect, and perceived stress) ranged from 0 to 100 with higher scores corresponding to worse health status.