Table 3

Association between edentulism/diabetes groups and health status (outcome) estimated by multivariable linear regression

Health status (outcome)Edentulism (+)Edentulism (−)Edentulism (+)
Diabetes (−)Diabetes (+)Diabetes (+)
B-coefficient (95% CI)B-coefficient (95% CI)B-coefficient (95% CI)
Self-care2.90*** (1.69 to 4.10)5.43*** (3.36 to 7.50)8.93*** (4.85 to 13.01)
Pain/discomfort1.98** (0.72 to 3.24)9.28*** (7.55 to 11.01)8.04*** (4.46 to 11.61)
Cognition3.48*** (2.18 to 4.77)4.38*** (2.52 to 6.23)12.01*** (8.52 to 15.50)
Interpersonal activities0.84 (−0.42 to 2.10)4.42*** (2.55 to 6.28)5.67** (1.72 to 9.63)
Sleep/energy1.75** (0.50 to 3.00)7.72*** (5.61 to 9.82)11.76*** (8.40 to 15.12)
Affect†0.06 (−1.29 to 1.40)8.46*** (6.32 to 10.60)7.05*** (3.39 to 10.71)
Perceived stress‡1.23 (−0.13 to 2.60)3.11** (1.25 to 4.97)8.75*** (3.91 to 13.58)
  • Symbol ‘+’ denotes presence; symbol ‘−’ denotes absence. Reference category is edentulism (−), diabetes (−).

  • Health status was the outcome and scores ranged from 0 to 100 with higher scores corresponding to worse health status.

  • Models are adjusted for age, sex, wealth, education, smoking, heavy drinking, and country.

  • **P<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • †Morocco is not included due to lack of data.

  • ‡Brazil, Hungary, and Zimbabwe are not included due to lack of data.