Table 4

CAN and CARTs versus ESKD, all-cause mortality and ≥30% decline in eGFR from baseline

EventsOutcomesHR (95% CI)P value
Model 144CAN6.352 (3.268 to 12.346)<0.0001
44E/I ratio5.035 (2.487 to 10.193)<0.0001
26Valsalva7.103 (3.163 to 15.951)<0.0001
4330/15 ratio3.832 (2.045 to 7.179)<0.0001
Model 244CAN6.843 (3.493 to 13.404)<0.0001
44E/I ratio5.255 (2.586 to 10.677)<0.0001
26Valsalva7.453 (3.278 to 16.945)<0.0001
4330/15 ratio4.228 (2.218 to 8.060)<0.0001
Model 344CAN4.957 (2.410 to 10.194)<0.0001
44E/I ratio3.983 (1.856 to 8.545)0.0004
26Valsalva4.194 (1.582 to 11.117)0.0039
4330/15 ratio3.887 (1.905 to 7.933)0.0002
Model 444CAN3.138 (1.472 to 6.690)0.0031
44E/I ratio2.411 (1.077 to 5.4)0.0324
26Valsalva2.641 (0.975 to 7.159)0.0562
4330/15 ratio2.459 (1.165 to 5.194)0.0183
Model 539CAN2.497 (1.119 to 5.571)0.0254
39E/I ratio1.811 (0.776 to 4.226)0.1693
24Valsalva1.903 (0.668 to 5.421)0.2284
4330/15 ratio2.223 (0.990 to 4.990)0.0529
Model 623CAN2.807 (0.874 to 9.014)0.0829
23E/I Ratio2.520 (0.600 to 10.585)0.2070
23Valsalva1.903 (0.769 to 6.763)0.1373
2330/15 ratio2.223 (0.493 to 3.775)0.5496
  • Model 1: unadjusted. Model 2: adjusted for age and sex. Model 3: as model 2 and additionally adjusted for duration of diabetes, Hba1c, BMI, smoking, exercise, beta-blocker use, LDL cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. Model 4: as model 3, and additionally adjusted for baseline eGFR. Model 5: as model 4 and additionally adjusted for urinary albumin excretion rate. CARTs were evaluated as binary variables based on age-specific cut-off values.

  • BMI, body mass index; CAN, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy; CARTs, cardiac autonomic reflex tests; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; E/I ratio, expiration/inspiration ratio; ESKD, end-stage kidney disease; LDL, low-density lipoprotein.