Table 1

Baseline characteristics

No CANDefinite CANP for difference between no CAN and definite CANNo CAN estimation
(n=181)(n=101)(n=47)
Men, n (%)86 (47.5)57 (56.4)0.08627 (57.4)
Age, years55.4 (9.7)53.9 (7.7)0.60860.1 (10.0)
HbA1c, mmol/mol60.9 (9.8)66.3 (12.1)0.00860.9 (11.1)
HbA1c, %7.7 (0.9)8.2 (1.1)0.0087.7 (1.0)
Body mass index, kg/m224.8 (3.7)25.0 (4.4)0.88824.3 (3.1)
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg131.0 (17.5)136.7 (18.5)0.002131.3 (18.4)
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg74.1 (8.8)74.8 (9.3)0.79572.6 (8.7)
Diabetes duration, years38.6 (8.6)40.9 (8.3)0.00344.0 (10.2)
Regular exercise, n (%)136 (75.1)64 (63.4)0.10731 (66)
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m284.4 (21.2)63.9 (28.3)<0.00175.6 (24.8)
Urinary albumin excretion rate, mg/24 hours9.5 (6–24)44.3 (13–314.0)<0.00111.0 (6.66)
 Microalbuminuria 30–300 mg/24 hours (n)21 (11)27 (27)0.06415 (32)
 Macroalbuminuria >300 mg/24 hours (n)11 (6)22 (22)0.4933 (6)
LDL cholesterol, mmol/L2.4 (0.7)2.4 (0.7)0.5422.5 (0.7)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) classification category, n (%)
 Normal: eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2103 (56.9)26 (25.7)<0.00117 (36.2)
 Mild CKD: 60≥eGFR<90 mL/min/1.73 m255 (30.4)29 (28.7)0.99115 (31.9)
 Moderate CKD: 30≥eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m219 (10.5)32 (31.7)0.02810 (21.3)
 Severe CKD: 15≥eGFR<30 mL/min/1.73 m24 (2.2)11 (10.9)<0.0014 (8.5)
 Kidney failure: eGFR <15 mL/min/1.73 m20 (0)3 (3.0)0.1171 (2.1)
Medication, n (%)
 Beta-blockers13 (7.4)20 (20.4)<0.0019 (19.1)
 RAAS blockers176 (97.2)97 (96)<0.0019 (19.1)
 Statins93 (54.1)72 (80.9)0.00222 (50)
Autonomic function measures
 E/I ratio1.2 (1.1–1.3)1.0 (1.0–1.1)<0.0011.1 (1.1–1.2)
 30/15 ratio1.1 (1.1–1.2)1.0 (1.0–1.0)<0.0011.1 (1.0–1.1)
 Valsalva maneuver1.5 (1.4–1.8)1.2 (1.1–1.3)<0.0011.5 (1.2–1.8)
 SDNN, ms30.5 (20.5–42.5)10.0 (7–15)<0.00117.0 (13–33)
 Heart rate, beats/min66.0 (10.6)75.6 (12.2)<0.00168.7 (12.1)
  • No CAN estimation: subject with one or no CAN measurements.

  • CAN, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy; CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; E/I ratio, expiration/inspiration ratio; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; RAAS, Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System; SDNN, SD of normal to normal interval.