Table 3

Adjusted* continuous CAN indices versus slope of GFR and UACR

NParameterOutcomesEstimate (95% CI)P value
Model 1141ValsalvaUACR−0.04 (0.02 to −0.07)0.031
144ValsalvaGFR0.108 (−0.307 to 0.522)0.611
20830/15 ratioUACR−0.04 (−0.07 to 0.0003)0.053
21230/15 ratioGFR0.058 (−0.271 to 0.387)0.730
211E/I ratioUACR−0.04 (−0.07 to −0.01)0.010
215E/I ratioGFR0.215 (−0.149 to 0.588)0.247
213SDNNUACR−0.04 (−0.07 to −0.003)0.047
217SDNNGFR0.171 (−0.228 to 0.57)0.401
Model 2141ValsalvaUACR−0.031 (−0.07 to 0.01)0.097
144ValsalvaGFR0.057 (−0.364 to 0.478)0.790
20830/15 ratioUACR−0.042 (−0.07 to −0.02)0.003
21230/15 ratioGFR0.050 (−0.276 to 0.376)0.763
211E/I ratioUACR−0.039 (−0.07 to −0.01)0.014
215E/I ratioGFR0.222 (−0.145 to 0.589)0.234
213SDNNUACR−0.034 (−0.068 to −0.001)0.054
217SDNNGFR0.156 (−0.243 to 0.554)0.444
Model 3141ValsalvaUACR−0.036 (−0.07 to 0.002)0.061
144ValsalvaGFR−0.118 (−0.538 to 0.303)0.582
20730/15 ratioUACR−0.041 (−0.07 to −0.013)0.004
21130/15 ratioGFR−0.046 (−0.366 to 0.274)0.779
210E/I ratioUACR−0.031 (−0.064 to 0.002)0.069
214E/I ratioGFR0.003 (−0.376 to 0.382)0.988
212SDNNUACR−0.03 (−0.07 to 0.05)0.090
216SDNNGFR−0.084 (−0.484 to 0.315)0.679
Model 4141ValsalvaUACR−0.034 (−0.07 to −0.004)0.077
144ValsalvaGFR−0.034 (−0.447 to 0.378)0.870
20530/15 ratioUACR−0.034 (−0.06 to −0.006)0.017
21030/15 ratioGFR−0.025 (−0.350 to 0.301)0.882
208E/I ratioUACR−0.016 (−0.05 to 0.017)0.344
213E/I ratioGFR0.037 (−0.361 to 0.435)0.855
210SDNNUACR−0.018 (−0.05 to 0.02)0.322
215SDNNGFR−0.045 (−0.460 to 0.369)0.830
Model 5129ValsalvaUACR−0.039 (−0.07 to −0.001)0.044
126ValsalvaGFR0.120 (−0.318 to 0.558)0.591
18530/15 ratioUACR−0.033 (−0.06 to −0.005)0.023
18430/15 ratioGFR−0.057 (−0.395 to 0.282)0.742
185E/I ratioUACR−0.018 (−0.053 to 0.017)0.317
184E/I ratioGFR0.008 (−0.424 to 0.439)0.972
187SDNNUACR−0.021 (−0.06 to 0.017)0.262
186SDNNGFR−0.186 (−0.625 to 0.253)0.406
Model 6129ValsalvaUACR−0.021 (−0.058 to 0.016)0.275
126ValsalvaGFR0.078 (−0.373 to 0.529)0.734
18530/15 ratioUACR−0.032 (−0.060 to −0.004)0.027
18430/15 ratioGFR−0.059 (−0.398 to 0.281)0.735
185E/I ratioUACR−0.016 (−0.053 to 0.021)0.401
184E/I ratioGFR−0.013 (−0.459 to 0.433)0.956
187SDNNUACR−0.021 (−0.058 to 0.016)0.275
186SDNNGFR−0.193 (−0.633 to 0.248)0.392
  • Model 1: unadjusted. Model 2: adjusted for age and sex. Model 3: as model 2 and additionally adjusted for duration of diabetes, Hba1c, BMI, smoking, exercise, beta-blocker use, LDL cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. Model 4: as model 3, and additionally adjusted for baseline estimated GFR. Model 5: as model 4 and additionally adjusted for urinary albumin excretion rate.

  • *Estimates are for change in standardized units (95% CI).

  • BMI, body mass index; CAN, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy; E/I ratio, expiration/inspiration ratio; GFR, glomerular filtration rate; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; SDNN, SD of normal to normal interval; UACR, urine albumin to creatinine ratio.