Table 1

Maternal characteristics and biochemical data

Maternal characteristics and biochemical variablesControls (n=25)ABX detected (n=12)P value
Age (years)30.6±4.8531±5.310.839
Pre-BMI (kg/m2)22.5±4.9821.3±2.00.442
Gestational age (weeks)25.7±1.2225.2±1.110.208
SBP (mmHg)107.4±10.0110.7±10.40.347
DBP (mmHg)70.2 (66~74)67.8 (65~70.7)0.282
Gravidity1.8 (1~2.5)2.1 (1.3~3)0.184
Parity0.5 (0~1)0.6 (0~1)0.657
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)4.89 (4.56~4.96)4.94 (4.76~4.95)0.411
1 h glucose (mmol/L)7.61±2.177.89±1.150.746
2 h glucose (mmol/L)6.69±2.116.09±0.600.335
HbA1c (mmol/L)4.94±0.574.99±0.440.773
Fasting insulin (μU/L)50.1 (33.1~62.1)52.4 (34.3~63.0)0.546
1 h insulin (μU/L)319.0±170.7397.7±139.10.176
2 h insulin (μU/L)279.1±159.2208.2±68.80.152
HOMA-IR1.56 (0.99~2.01)1.65 (1.01~2.18)0.535
Triglyceride (mmol/L)2.71±0.842.24±0.770.114
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)6.38±1.075.64±1.110.064
HDL (mmol/L)2.05 (1.72~2.15)2.01 (1.68~2.31)0.687
LDL (mmol/L)3.13±0.892.69±1.010.184
  • Clinical characteristics, biochemical and hormonal variables of antibiotic exposure and normal healthy pregnant women at 24~28 weeks’ gestation are presented as mean±SEM when normally distributed or median with 25–75th IQR when non-normal distributed. Statistically significant difference between the GDM and normoglycemic women group are highlighted (*p<0.05, **p<0.01). HOMA-IR, HOMA-IR=FPG (mmol/L) × FINS (μU/mL)/22.5.

  • ABX, antibiotics; BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FINS, fasting insulin levels; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; SBP, systolic blood pressure.