Table 3

Microbiome composition in phylum and genera levels of antibiotic exposure and normal healthy pregnant women are different at 24~28 weeks’ gestation

Controls (n=25)ABX detected (n=12)P value
Chao681.8±140.21537.3±564.6<0.01
Shannon3.82±0.674.41±0.730.022
OTUs459.7±85.0899.0±284.5<0.01
Phylum
Firmicutes0.589±0.1920.682±0.1380.145
Bacteroidetes0.229±0.1550.204±0.1260.639
Proteobacteria0.119 (0.025~0.160)0.073 (0.021~0.080)0.119
Actinobacteria0.033 (0.013~0.044)0.012 (0.015~0.021)**0.004
Verrucomicrobia0.017 (0~0.015)0.003 (0~0002)0.135
Tenericutes0.006 (0~0.005)0.003 (0~0.001)0.289
Other0.002 (0~0.002)0.006 (0.0002~0.008)<0.01
Genera
Bacteroides0.184 (0.066~0.240)0.160 (0.072~0.208)0.721
Faecalibacterium0.162 (0.072~0.222)0.189 (0.188~0.247)0.119
Other_A0.137 (0.071~0.161)0.161 (0.094~0.219)0.256
Megamonas0.034 (0~0.011)0.018 (0~0.004)0.088
Lachnoclostridium0.020 (0.004~0.024)0.020 (0.008~0.031)0.721
EscherichiaShigella0.029 (0.001~0.041)0.008 (0~0.006)0.098
Ruminococcaceae_UCG0140.051 (0~0.05)0.016 (0~0.037)0.459
Incertae_sedis0.004 (0~0.004)0.042 (0.002~0.025)*0.019
Eubacterium_coprostanoligenes
_group
0.03 (0.005~0.050)0.007 (0~0.007)**0.009
Ruminococcaceae_UCG0020.028 (0~0.017)0.021 (0~0.023)0.407
Christensenellaceae_R7_group0.026 (0.005~0.035)0.004 (0~0.08)**0.001
Dialister0.017 (0~0.011)0.033 (0~0.048)0.060
Bifidobacterium0.013 (0.002~0.016)0.010 (0.001~0.015)0.338
Hafnia0.011 (0~0)0 (0~0)**0.845
Subdoligranulum0.024 (0~0.029)0.006 (0~0.01)*0.024
Ruminococcus_20.015 (0.001~0.024)0.006 (0~0.016)*0.031
Prevotella_90.001 (0~0)0.008 (0~0.020)0.017
Lachnospiraceae_UCG0040.003 (0~0.003)0.006 (0.004~0.009)0.004
Rhodococcus0.008 (0.007~0.007)0.0002 (0~0.0003)**<0.01
  • Significant differences between two groups show in */**, *p<0.05,**p<0.01, the diversity and microbiome composition are presented as mean±SEM when normally distributed or median with 25–75th IQR when non-normal distributed the decreased genera in GDM group are in boldface.

  • ABX, antibiotic; OTU, operational taxonomic unit.