Table 4

Predictors of obesity, pre-diabetes and MetS-WC at 1-year PP*

All factors includedOR (95% CI)Factors not contained in MetS-WC definition§OR (95% CI)
Predictors of obesity
BMI before pregnancy†1.70 (1.40 to 2.07)WHO well-being score at 6–8 weeks PP0.98 (0.96 to 1.00)
Treatment during pregnancy
(metformin, insulin)
3.17 (0.93 to 10.8)Treatment during pregnancy
(metformin, insulin)†
2.39 (1.10 to 5.17)
Predictors of pre-diabetes
BMI before pregnancy1.06 (0.98 to 1.15)Family history of diabetes†2.10 (1.05 to 4.20)
Fasting glucose at 6–8 weeks PP†3.23 (1.32 to 7.92)Personal history of GDM2.82 (0.80 to 9.99)
2-hour plasma glucose at 6–8 weeks PP1.28 (0.95 to 1.72)Employed during pregnancy0.59 (0.29 to 1.19)
HbA1c at 6–8 weeks PP2.75 (0.85 to 8.84)
Family history of diabetes1.88 (0.88 to 4.05)
Predictors of metabolic syndrome‡
Systolic blood pressure at end of pregnancy†1.08 (1.01 to 1.15)Family history of diabetes2.15 (0.88 to 5.27)
Systolic blood pressure at 6–8 weeks PP†1.08 (1.02 to 1.15)
2-hour plasma glucose at 6–8 weeks PP†1.59 (1.07 to 2.37)
HDL-cholesterol at 6–8 weeks PP†0.05 (0.01 to 0.29)
  • *Factors were first selected in univariate analyses, then in a multiple stepwise regression with a cut-off p value ≤0.20. This tables lists only the significant factors after backward selection.

  • †Significant predictors (p<0.05).

  • ‡Defined by waist circumference.

  • §Non-metabolic factors are listed in online supplemental table 1.

  • BMI, body mass index; GDM, gestational diabetes; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; MetS, metabolic syndrome; PP, postpartum; WC, waist circumference.