Table 2

Factors associated with conversion of diabetes mellitus: a univariate Cox regression analysis

FactorTime at riskNumber of eventIncidence rate/
100 patient-years
HR95% CI
FPG (mg/dL)
 100–10915 0803982.641
 110–12562052974.791.741.50 to 2.02
HbA1c (%)
 <5.75110200.391
 5.7–6.4916 1756754.1710.436.68 to 16.26
Combined FPG (mg/dL) and HbA1c (%)
 100–109 and <5.74160100.241
 110–125 and <5.7951101.054.201.75 to 10.09
 100–109 and 5.7–6.4910 9203883.5514.537.76 to 27.22
 110–125 and 5.7–6.4952542875.4621.5011.44 to 40.39
Age at diagnosis pre-diabetes (years)
 <6516 6695413.251
 65–7539631233.100.9970.82 to 1.21
 ≥75653314.751.6281.13 to 2.34
Sex
 Male72132253.121
 Female14 0724703.341.070.91 to 1.25
Educational level
 Non-educated571305.261
 Primary school70902323.270.590.40 to 0.86
 Secondary school60932093.430.630.43 to 0.92
 College or higher75322242.970.560.38 to 0.81
Reimbursement
 UHC375133.471
 SSS1963824.181.160.65 to 2.09
 Civil servant12 7854023.140.870.50 to 1.51
 Other61621983.210.880.50 to 1.55
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 <2346911082.301
 23–27.595192893.001.331.04 to 1.71
 ≥27.570742994.201.901.48 to 2.43
Family history of DM
 No12 9933842.961
 Yes82923113.751.301.12 to 1.51
Smoking status
 Never16 2705363.291
 Past42821313.060.950.78 to 1.14
 Current733283.821.270.87 to 1.85
Alcohol drinking
 Never11 7203913.341
 Past57111753.060.910.76 to 1.09
 Current38541293.351.040.85 to 1.27
Berlin category I ≥2
 No12 8573792.951
 Yes84273163.751.271.10 to 1.48
Blood pressure
 Normal BP* and no HT*42321122.701
 Well-controlled BP* with HT and/or antihypertensive drugs79472403.001.090.85 to 1.38
 High BP† with or without HT91063423.801.331.05 to 1.68
Hyperuricemia
 No‡15 2864482.901
 Yes§59992474.101.401.19 to 1.64
Triglyceride
 <150 mg/dL14 0293982.831
 ≥150 mg/dL72552974.101.451.24 to 1.70
LDL-cholesterol
 <130 mg/dL13 1084293.301
 ≥130 mg/dL81772663.301.030.89 to 1.21
HDL-cholesterol
 <40 in male, <50 in female61192514.101
 ≥40 in male, ≥50 in female15 1654442.900.700.60 to 0.82
  • *Systolic BP <140 mm Hg and diastolic BP <90 mm Hg.

  • †Systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic 90 mm Hg.

  • ‡Serum uric acid <6 mg/dL in female and<7.2 in male

  • §Serum uric acid ≥6 mg/dL in female and ≥7.2 mg/dL in male.

  • BP, blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HR, hazard ratio; HT, hypertension; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; SSS, social security scheme; UHC, universal healthcare coverage.