Table 1

Characteristics of study’s participants

CharacteristicsTotal
N=3011
FPG 100–109 mg/dL and HbA1c <5.7%
(N=223)
FPG 100–109 mg/dL
and HbA1c 5.7%–6.49%
(N=456)
FPG 110–125 mg/dL
and HbA1c <5.7%
(N=68)
FPG 110–125 mg/dL
and HbA1c 5.7%–6.49%
(N=209)
Age at enrollment (year): mean (SD)64.1 (9.25)59.4 (9.51)62.0 (8.45)60.5 (8.62)61.4 (9.17)
Female: frequency (%)1985 (65.92)140 (62.78)310 (67.98)36 (52.94)137 (65.55)
Duration of pre-diabetes at date of enrollment (year); median (range)4.91 (0.25–23.47)2.55 (0.50–3.91)2.78 (0.52–4.18)2.58 (0.65–3.67)2.47 (0.38–3.98)
Educational level: frequency (%)
 Lower than primary school82 (2.73)4 (1.79)11 (2.42)0 (0)7 (3.35)
 Primary school971 (32.35)69 (30.94)129 (28.35)24 (35.29)66 (31.58)
 Secondary school864 (28.78)70 (31.39)130 (28.57)18 (26.47)57 (27.27)
 College or higher1085 (36.14)80 (35.87)185 (40.66)26 (38.24)79 (37.80)
Marital status: frequency (%)
 Single368 (12.24)29 (13.0)59 (12.94)8 (11.76)21 (10.10)
 Married2094 (69.66)160 (71.75)310 (67.98)53 (77.94)153 (73.56)
 Divorce228 (7.58)15 (6.73)40 (8.77)1 (1.47)20 (9.62)
 Widow316 (10.51)19 (8.52)47 (10.31)6 (8.82)14 (6.73)
Reimbursement: frequency (%)
 Universal healthcare coverage55 (1.84)8 (3.64)7 (1.55)0 (0)9 (4.33)
 Social security scheme284 (9.52)27 (12.27)41 (9.07)5 (7.69)20 (9.62)
 Civil servant1777 (59.55)126 (57.27)274 (60.62)40 (61.54)127 (61.06)
 Others868 (29.09)59 (26.82)130 (28.76)20 (30.77)52 (25.0)
Smoking status: frequency (%)
 Never2278 (75.66)166 (74.44)351 (76.97)46 (67.65)9 (4.31)
 Past smoker613 (20.36)46 (20.63)87 (19.08)16 (23.53)47 (22.49)
 Current smoker120 (3.99)11 (4.93)18 (3.95)6 (8.82)153 (73.21)
Alcohol drinking: frequency (%)
 Never1625 (54.02)110 (49.55)255 (55.92)31 (45.59)99 (47.37)
 Past drinking796 (26.46)56 (25.23)111 (24.34)22 (32.35)64 (30.62)
 Current drinking587 (19.51)56 (25.23)90 (19.74)15 (22.06)46 (20.01)
 Having family history of diabetes mellitus1205 (40.03)83 (37.22)202 (44.30)20 (29.41)96 (46.15)
Underlying diseases: frequency (%)
 Hypertension2044 (68.09)123 (55.16)297 (65.71)43 (63.24)132 (63.46)
 Dyslipidemia2665 (88.74)182 (81.61)398 (87.86)55 (80.88)182 (87.50)
 Chronic kidney disease123 (4.10)6 (2.69)21 (4.65)5 (7.35)9 (4.33)
 Coronary artery disease16 (0.53)1 (0.45)2 (0.44)0 (0)2 (0.96)
 Cerebrovascular disease38 (1.27)4 (1.79)6 (1.33)0 (0)3 (1.44)
 Fatty liver118 (3.93)12 (5.38)22 (4.87)2 (2.94)11 (5.29)
 Gestational diabetes mellitus16 (0.81)0 (0)4 (1.29)0 (0)5 (3.65)
 Cancer54 (2.73)6 (4.29)7 (2.29)1 (2.78)5 (3.68)
Berlin category I ≥2: frequency (%)1203 (39.95)43 (30.71)111 (35.81)10 (27.78)52 (37.96)
Body mass index (kg/m2): mean (SD)26.28 (4.01)26.33 (4.22)26.48 (4.09)25.72 (3.76)26.75 (4.36)
Waist circumference (cm): mean (SD)
 Male93.27 (9.42) 91.79 (9.62) 94.45 (9.36) 91.64 (10.91) 93.99 (11.48)
 Female88.68 (9.81)86.49 (11.41)88.01 (9.83)88.60 (9.10)90.57 (10.15)
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg): mean (SD)137.09 (14.07)134.45 (12.94)136.48 (13.89)136.80 (12.30)136.92 (13.72)
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg): mean (SD)76.99 (6.31)77.87 (6.38)77.54 (5.95)78.59 (6.53)77.71 (6.55)
Serum triglyceride level (mg/dL): mean (SD)136.95 (61.36)136.68 (58.41)137.03 (62.29)149.7 (76.89)135.15 (51.74)
Serum uric acid (mg/dL): mean (SD)
 Male6.43 (1.17)6.51 (1.37)6.43 (1.10)5.81 (1.63)6.59 (1.20)
 Female5.36 (1.19)5.10 (1.12)5.31 (1.04)5.23 (1.07)5.29 (1.25)
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL): mean (SD)122.77 (23.19)124.60 (26.46)124.51 (23.20)121.83 (24.51)126.12 (23.14)
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL): mean (SD)
 Male49.11 (10.78)49.48 (11.46)47.96 (10.12)50.25 (9.42)46.95 (9.45)
 Female56.15 (12.39)56.22 (12.21)56.23 (11.54)56.43 (13.36)54.86 (12.77)
FPG (mg/dL): mean (SD)107.18 (5.61)104.14 (2.67)104.09 (2.60)113.61 (3.35)114.65 (4.11)
HbA1c (%): mean (SD)5.89 (0.39)5.41 (0.34)6.02 (0.22)5.38 (0.26)6.06 (0.23)
  • FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein.