Table 3

Multiple logistic regression with advanced diabetic retinopathy as the dependent variable

Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4
OR95% CIP valueOR95% CIP valueOR95% CIP valueOR95% CIP value
Age0.960.94 to 0.990.00180.970.94 to 0.990.00370.970.95 to 0.990.0260.960.94 to 0.990.0050
Duration1.061.03 to 1.09<0.00011.061.03 to 1.09<0.00011.061.03 to 1.09<0.00011.051.02 to 1.080.0021
Smoking0.730.45 to 1.180.200.730.46 to 1.180.200.760.47 to 1.220.250.740.46 to 1.210.23
HbA1c1.090.96 to 1.250.181.100.96 to 1.250.181.080.94 to 1.240.251.090.95 to 1.250.21
CPI0.630.42 to 0.900.0150.620.41 to 0.910.0190.540.35 to 0.810.00360.560.36 to 0.830.0052
HT2.181.24 to 3.860.00722.151.20 to 3.870.0111.911.07 to 3.420.0301.851.03 to 3.330.040
HUA2.351.33 to 4.160.00322.351.33 to 4.160.00322.451.38 to 4.360.00232.381.34 to 4.250.0033
BMI1.010.95 to 1.070.85
MBBO1.051.00 to 1.110.0411.051.00 to 1.110.033
Δyear1.031.00 to 1.050.023
AUC: 0.704AUC: 0.701AUC: 0.715AUC: 0.723
  • Model 1: all explanatory variables except BMI on admission, MBBO, and age at MBBO were included and then excluded if the variable was not statistically significant at a 20% level (p<0.20) via stepwise backward elimination. Model 2: model 1+BMI on admission; model 3: model 1+MBBO; model 4: model 3+Δyear.

  • AUC, area under the curve; BMI, body mass index; CPI, C-peptide index; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HT, hypertension; HUA, hyperuricemia; MBBO, maximum BMI before onset; Δyear, the period from age at MBBO to admission.