Table 3

Multiple logistic regression with advanced diabetic retinopathy as the dependent variable

 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 OR 95% CI P value OR 95% CI P value OR 95% CI P value OR 95% CI P value Age 0.96 0.94 to 0.99 0.0018 0.97 0.94 to 0.99 0.0037 0.97 0.95 to 0.99 0.026 0.96 0.94 to 0.99 0.0050 Duration 1.06 1.03 to 1.09 <0.0001 1.06 1.03 to 1.09 <0.0001 1.06 1.03 to 1.09 <0.0001 1.05 1.02 to 1.08 0.0021 Smoking 0.73 0.45 to 1.18 0.20 0.73 0.46 to 1.18 0.20 0.76 0.47 to 1.22 0.25 0.74 0.46 to 1.21 0.23 HbA1c 1.09 0.96 to 1.25 0.18 1.10 0.96 to 1.25 0.18 1.08 0.94 to 1.24 0.25 1.09 0.95 to 1.25 0.21 CPI 0.63 0.42 to 0.90 0.015 0.62 0.41 to 0.91 0.019 0.54 0.35 to 0.81 0.0036 0.56 0.36 to 0.83 0.0052 HT 2.18 1.24 to 3.86 0.0072 2.15 1.20 to 3.87 0.011 1.91 1.07 to 3.42 0.030 1.85 1.03 to 3.33 0.040 HUA 2.35 1.33 to 4.16 0.0032 2.35 1.33 to 4.16 0.0032 2.45 1.38 to 4.36 0.0023 2.38 1.34 to 4.25 0.0033 BMI 1.01 0.95 to 1.07 0.85 MBBO 1.05 1.00 to 1.11 0.041 1.05 1.00 to 1.11 0.033 Δyear 1.03 1.00 to 1.05 0.023 AUC: 0.704 AUC: 0.701 AUC: 0.715 AUC: 0.723
• Model 1: all explanatory variables except BMI on admission, MBBO, and age at MBBO were included and then excluded if the variable was not statistically significant at a 20% level (p<0.20) via stepwise backward elimination. Model 2: model 1+BMI on admission; model 3: model 1+MBBO; model 4: model 3+Δyear.

• AUC, area under the curve; BMI, body mass index; CPI, C-peptide index; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HT, hypertension; HUA, hyperuricemia; MBBO, maximum BMI before onset; Δyear, the period from age at MBBO to admission.