Table 3

Factors affecting the excess incidence of CKD in Malays and Indians compared with Chinese

Adjustment modelsMalays versus ChineseMalays versus Indians
OR (95% CI)% Reduction in excess risk*0R (95% CI)% Reduction in excess risk*
Age and sex (1)†2.22 (1.71 to 2.88)Reference1.90 (1.45 to 2.50)Reference
Clinical and metabolic factors (2)‡1.64 (1.24 to 2.17)481.85 (1.38 to 2.50)5
Socioeconomic and behavioral factors (3)§1.51 (1.14 to 2.00)581.67 (1.25 to 2.24)25
Fully adjusted (4)¶1.44 (1.08 to 1.94)641.73 (1.27 to 2.35)19
  • *Per cent reduction in incidence difference defined by the formula:15Embedded Image where Embedded Image is the OR of incident CKD in Malays versus Chinese and Malays versus Indians, adjusted for age and sex only (model 1), and Embedded Image is the OR after adjustment for variables in models 2, 3, 4.

  • †Model 1, ORs (95% CI) of incident CKD in association with ethnicity adjusting for age and sex.

  • ‡Model 2, adjusted for variables in model 1 plus diabetes, hypertension, systolic BP, history of cardiovascular disease, and dyslipidemia.

  • §Model 3, adjusted for variables in model 1 plus education, current smoking, obesity, diabetes control (HbA1c<7%) and BP control (systolic BP <140 mm Hg and diastolic BP <90 mm Hg).

  • ¶Model 4 adjusted for all variables in models 1 to 3.

  • BP, blood pressure; CKD, chronic kidney disease; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin.