Table 2

Baseline characteristics by combotherapy group (weighted cohort)

CharacteristicSulfonylurea‘Other’SMD
(n=28 077)(n=4499)
Demographics
Age (years)56.4±14.056.8±13.30.029
Sex (% female)43.80%44.00%0.004
Geographic/Socioeconomic status
Rural/Income quintile 111.80%11.50%0.008
Rural/Income quintile 28.90%9.50%0.017
Rural/Income quintile 37.60%7.60%0.001
Rural/Income quintile 47.30%7.40%0.003
Rural/Income quintile 56.20%6.10%0.001
Urban/Income quintile 114.40%14.20%0.005
Urban/Income quintile 212.70%12.40%0.008
Urban/Income quintile 311.50%11.40%0.002
Urban/Income quintile 410.40%10.40%<0.001
Urban/Income quintile 58.10%8.30%0.007
Unknown1.10%1.10%0.005
Baseline comorbidities
Alcohol abuse3.80%3.70%<0.001
Amputation0.40%0.40%<0.001
Asthma14.10%13.20%0.02
CKD2.80%3.00%0.013
COPD10.00%9.70%0.008
Cardiovascular disease25.80%26.20%0.009
Dementia3.10%3.20%0.004
Hypertension64.30%65.10%0.013
Hyperlipidemia35.10%35.10%<0.001
Liver disease5.80%6.00%0.005
Malignancy10.20%10.60%0.01
Microvascular disease22.00%22.10%0.001
Obesity6.90%6.40%0.016
Baseline medication use
ACE inhibitors40.70%40.90%0.004
Anticoagulants4.30%4.50%0.009
Antiplatelets19.10%18.90%0.005
ARBs20.10%20.60%0.009
Beta-blockers20.80%21.40%0.012
CCBs19.30%19.90%0.014
Digoxin2.20%2.20%0.004
Direct vasodilators0.20%0.20%0.002
Loop diuretics7.90%8.30%0.012
Potassium-sparing diuretics1.60%1.60%0.001
Thiazide diuretics14.60%14.70%0.001
Statins49.80%49.90%0.002
Other lipid-lowering medications6.40%6.20%0.006
Index fiscal year
2006/079.00%9.80%0.025
2007/087.60%8.00%0.013
2008/097.60%7.70%<0.001
2009/108.50%8.90%0.01
2010/119.10%8.70%0.012
2011/129.60%9.20%0.011
2012/139.00%9.00%<0.001
2013/149.30%8.80%0.014
2014/1510.20%10.10%0.003
2015/1611.50%11.20%0.009
2016/178.70%8.60%<0.001
Time on metformin before add-on therapy
≥3 years25.50%25.90%0.006
1–3 years21.60%21.80%0.003
<1 year52.90%52.40%0.008
  • ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; CCB, calcium channel blocker; CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; SMD, standardized mean difference.