Table 1

Baseline characteristics by combotherapy group (full cohort)

CharacteristicSulfonylurea‘Other’SMD
(n=28 077)(n=4499)
Demographics
Age (years)56.4±14.156.3±12.60.007
Sex (% female)12 240 (43.6%)2010 (44.7%)0.022
Geographic/Socioeconomic status
Rural/Income quintile 13576 (12.7%)275 (6.1%)0.228
Rural/Income quintile 22616 (9.3%)279 (6.2%)0.117
Rural/Income quintile 32205 (7.9%)287 (6.4%)0.057
Rural/Income quintile 42081 (7.4%)313 (7.0%)0.017
Rural/Income quintile 51684 (6.0%)328 (7.3%)0.052
Urban/Income quintile 14175 (14.9%)508 (11.3%)0.106
Urban/Income quintile 23520 (12.5%)625 (13.9%)0.04
Urban/Income quintile 33127 (11.1%)611 (13.6%)0.074
Urban/Income quintile 42752 (9.8%)643 (14.3%)0.138
Urban/Income quintile 52020 (7.2%)607 (13.5%)0.208
Unknown321 (1.1%)23 (0.5%)0.07
Baseline comorbidities
Alcohol abuse1151 (4.1%)75 (1.7%)0.146
Amputation107 (0.4%)9 (0.2%)0.034
Asthma3900 (13.9%)695 (15.4%)0.044
CKD793 (2.8%)100 (2.2%)0.038
COPD2858 (10.2%)382 (8.5%)0.058
Cardiovascular disease7332 (26.1%)1066 (23.7%)0.056
Dementia916 (3.3%)92 (2.0%)0.076
Hypertension17 943 (63.9%)3006 (66.8%)0.061
Hyperlipidemia9668 (34.4%)1769 (39.3%)0.101
Liver disease1617 (5.8%)284 (6.3%)0.023
Malignancy2858 (10.2%)453 (10.1%)0.004
Microvascular disease6178 (22.0%)997 (22.2%)0.004
Obesity1878 (6.7%)364 (8.1%)0.054
Baseline medication use
ACE inhibitors11 491 (40.9%)1753 (39.0%)0.04
Anticoagulants1227 (4.4%)173 (3.8%)0.026
Antiplatelets5559 (19.8%)661 (14.7%)0.135
ARBs5461 (19.5%)1085 (24.1%)0.113
Beta-blockers5882 (20.9%)903 (20.1%)0.022
CCBs5388 (19.2%)881 (19.6%)0.01
Digoxin627 (2.2%)77 (1.7%)0.038
Direct vasodilators52 (0.2%)9 (0.2%)0.003
Loop diuretics2257 (8.0%)307 (6.8%)0.046
Potassium-sparing diuretics448 (1.6%)76 (1.7%)0.007
Thiazide diuretics4147 (14.8%)615 (13.7%)0.032
Statins13 785 (49.1%)2432 (54.1%)0.099
Other lipid-lowering medications1756 (6.3%)335 (7.4%)0.047
Index fiscal year
2006/072321 (8.3%)584 (13.0%)0.153
2007/082090 (7.4%)375 (8.3%)0.033
2008/092223 (7.9%)263 (5.8%)0.082
2009/102490 (8.9%)295 (6.6%)0.087
2010/112714 (9.7%)247 (5.5%)0.158
2011/122865 (10.2%)253 (5.6%)0.17
2012/132638 (9.4%)297 (6.6%)0.103
2013/142762 (9.8%)271 (6.0%)0.141
2014/152848 (10.1%)468 (10.4%)0.009
2015/162899 (10.3%)853 (19.0%)0.246
2016/172227 (7.9%)593 (13.2%)0.171
Time on metformin before add-on therapy
≥3 years6976 (24.8%)1339 (29.8%)0.111
1–3 years5892 (21.0%)1146 (25.5%)0.106
<1 year15 209 (55.6%)2014 (44.8%)0.189
  • ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; CCB, calcium channel blocker; CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; SMD, standardized mean difference.