Table 2

Effect of PA, total energy intake, and macronutrient (carbohydrate, fat, and protein) intake on HbA1c

βSEPtrend
PA (METs×hour/day)*−0.000330.000170.049
Total energy intake (kcal/day)†0.000020.000010.010
Carbohydrate (%)‡0.003930.00040<0.001
Fat (%)‡0.000040.000400.916
Protein (%)‡0.001060.001220.387
  • Regression analysis was conducted in the following units: PA, METs×hour/day; total energy intake, kcal/day; macronutrient intake, % of total energy intake; and HbA1c, %.

  • *Adjusted for age, sex, study area, total energy intake, macronutrient intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, medication for hypertension or hypercholesterolemia, and BMI.

  • †Adjusted for age, sex, study area, PA, macronutrient intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, medication for hypertension or hypercholesterolemia, and BMI.

  • ‡Adjusted for age, sex, study area, total energy intake, PA, alcohol consumption, smoking, medication for hypertension or hypercholesterolemia, and BMI.

  • BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; METs, metabolic equivalents; PA, physical activity; β, regression coefficient.