Table 1

Characteristics of participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline in the Look AHEAD study

WomenMen
Size, n (%)2613 (62.0)1602 (38.0)
Treatment assignment, n (%)
 Diabetes support and education1316 (50.4)804 (50.2)
 Intensive lifestyle intervention1297 (49.6)798 (49.8)
Age, years57.8 (6.6)59.3 (6.6)
Race/ethnicity, n (%)
 White1512 (57.9)1224 (76.4)
 Non-Hispanic Black561 (21.5)164 (10.2)
 Hispanic443 (17.0)167 (10.4)
 Other/mixed97 (3.7)47 (2.9)
Current smoking, n (%)105 (4.0)65 (4.1)
Alcohol drinking, n (%)588 (22.5)786 (49.1)
Calorie intake,* kcal/day1880.4 (826.7)2180.9 (917.1)
Physical activity,§ kcal/week392.0 (112.0–952.0)672.0 (196.0–1484.0)
Weight, kg95.5 (17.6)109.5 (18.8)
Body mass index, kg/m236.5 (6.1)35.2 (5.6)
Waist circumference, cm110.7 (13.4)118.5 (13.7)
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg129.2 (17.2)129.1 (16.3)
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg68.3 (9.2)73.9 (8.9)
Hypertension,¶ n (%)2242 (85.8)1371 (85.6)
Obesity, n (%)2256 (86.3)1342 (83.8)
Abdominal obesity, n (%)2534 (97.0)1441 (90.0)
Use of antihypertensive medication, n (%)1878 (71.8)1123 (70.1)
Use of beta blocker, n (%)452 (17.3)274 (17.10)
Use of ACEI or ARB, n (%)1445 (55.3)910 (56.8)
Fasting plasma glucose, mg/dL150.9 (44.7)155.6 (47.2)
Hemoglobin A1C, %7.3 (1.1)7.2 (1.2)
Duration of diabetes, years5.0 (2.0–9.0)5.0 (2.0–10.0)
Triglyceride, mg/dL147.0 (105.0–210.0)160.0 (110.0–232.0)
Total cholesterol, mg/dL198.3 (36.4)184.4 (36.0)
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, mg/dL47.3 (12.1)38.3 (9.3)
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, mg/dL117.3 (32.5)109.2 (30.6)
Hypercholesterolemia,** n (%)1754 (67.1)1100 (68.7)
Metabolic syndrome,† n (%)2464 (94.3)1454 (90.8)
Maximal MET value6.7 (1.7)8.1 (2.1)
Body composition variables‡
 Whole body fat, kg39.8 (10.4)32.7 (9.1)
 Whole body fat-free mass, kg53.0 (7.0)71.1 (7.6)
 Whole body lean mass, kg50.8 (6.8)68.3 (7.3)
 Whole body mass, kg92.8 (16.0)103.7 (14.2)
 Percent body fat, %42.4 (4.7)31.0 (5.2)
  • Data are mean (SD), median (IQR), or number (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *Calorie intake data were available for 2305 participants (1415 women and 890 men) who completed the food frequency questionnaire. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥102 cm for men or ≥88 cm for women. Obesity was defined as BMI of 30 kg/m2 or greater.

  • †The metabolic syndrome was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines.

  • ‡Body composition data were available for 1186 participants (772 women and 414 men) who had completed the DEXA scan.

  • §Physical activity data were available for 2402 participants (1226 women and 806 men) who completed the Paffenbarger Activity Questionnaire.

  • ¶Hypertension was defined as BP ≥130/80 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medication.

  • **Hypercholesterolemia was defined as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL or use of cholesterol-lowering medication.

  • ACEI, ACE inhibitor; AHEAD, Action for Health in Diabetes; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; DEXA, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; MET, metabolic equivalent.