Table 1

Baseline characteristics by sex

Combined (n=41)Female participants (n=14)Male participants (n=27)
Age (years)24.2±1.624±2.824.3±2
Ethnicity (n (%))Non-Hispanic
White: 37 (90.2)
Black: 4 (9.8)
Non-Hispanic
White: 13 (92.9)
Black: 1 (7.1)
Non-Hispanic
White: 24 (88.9)
Black: 3 (11.1)
DM duration (years)14.5±1.614.9±2.514.3±2.1
HbA1c (%/mmol/mol)7.9±0.2/637.7±0.4/618.0±0.2/64
Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (mg/g)14.5±3.214.9±6.114.3±3.8
Use of antihypertensive medication (n (%))6 (14.6%)1 (7%)5 (18.5%)
BMI (kg/m2)24.1±0.624.6±0.823.9±0.8
Height (cm)173.6±1.5167±1.3177.1±1.9*
Weight (kg)73.6±2.568.4±2.976.3±3.4*
Per cent body fat (%)22.7±1.529.7±219±1.6*
VO2max (mL/kg/min)40.7±1.632.8±1.344.9±1.8*
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)119.8±2.7112.9±4123.3±3.3
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)68.8±1.467.6±2.269.4±1.8
Total cholesterol (mg/dL/mmol/L)160.4±5.4/4.15±0.1172.4±8.9/4.46±0.2154.2±6.6/3.99±0.2
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL/mmol/L)98.1±4.8/2.5±0.1107.6±7.4/2.8±0.293.2±6.1/2.4±0.2
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL/mmol/L)51.8±1.3/1.354.4±1.9/1.450.4±1.7/1.3
Triglycerides (mg/dL/mmol/L)63.1±4.6/0.7±0.162.5±6.6/0.8±0.163.4±6.2/0.7+0.1
FMD (% change)7.4±0.48.2±0.87±0.5
AIx (%)3.8±2.19.1±4.41.3±2.2
cfPWV (m/s)6±0.35.3±0.36.4±0.4**
  • Data presented as mean±SEM. P values represent Welch’s t-tests comparing sexes.

  • *P<0.001, **p=0.03.

  • AIx, augmentation index; BMI, body mass index; cfPWV, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity; DM, diabetes mellitus; FMD, flow-mediated dilation; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; VO2max, maximum oxygen uptake.