Table 3

Adjusted odds of selected correlates by sex among participants with low (vs moderate or high) fitness status in the Look AHEAD study

CorrelateWomenMen
OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Obesity*3.86 (2.55 to 5.84)<0.0013.19 (1.95 to 5.20)<0.001
Abdominal obesity2.28 (1.08 to 4.79)0.0303.99 (2.00 to 7.96)<0.001
Hypertension1.44 (1.02 to 2.05)0.0401.74 (1.09 to 2.77)0.021
Hypercholesterolemia1.10 (0.89 to 1.38)0.3751.14 (0.84 to 1.53)0.402
Low HDL cholesterol0.87 (0.71 to 1.08)0.2091.02 (0.71 to 1.45)0.927
Hypertriglyceridemia0.77 (0.60 to 0.97)0.0281.10 (0.79 to 1.53)0.589
Metabolic syndrome2.25 (1.35 to 3.76)0.0025.52 (2.51 to 12.14)<0.001
Current smoking2.02 (1.25 to 3.28)0.0041.47 (0.75 to 2.86)0.260
Alcohol drinking0.84 (0.65 to 1.08)0.1770.80 (0.61 to 1.05)0.111
Beta-blocker use1.33 (1.03 to 1.73)0.0291.22 (0.86 to 1.73)0.267
Use of ACEI or ARB1.07 (0.86 to 1.32)0.5431.86 (1.39 to 2.50)<0.001
  • Models include age, race, BMI, total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, HbA1C, alcohol drinking, current smoking, and HTN; excluding total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio for hypercholesterolemia and low-HDL cholesterol outcomes; BMI, HbA1C, and HTN for the metabolic syndrome outcome; HTN for beta-blocker use or ACEI/ARB use outcomes; and BMI for obesity or abdominal obesity outcomes.

  • Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥102 cm for men or ≥88 cm for women.

  • Hypercholesterolemia was defined as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 130 mg/dL or greater and/or the use of cholesterol-lowering medications.

  • Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥130/80 mm Hg and/or the use of antihypertensive medication.

  • Low HDL cholesterol was defined as HDL cholesterol <40 mg/dL for men or <50 mg/dL for women.

  • Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines.

  • *Reference group was overweight (body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) of 25 or greater and less than 30). Obesity was defined as BMI of 30 kg/m2 or greater.

  • ACEI, ACE inhibitor; AHEAD, Action for Health in Diabetes; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; HbA1C, hemoglobin A1C; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HTN, hypertension.