Table 1

Summary of the results: HR with 95% CIs of diabetes risk in statin users and non-users

Total cohort (N=152 358)Statin non-usersStatin usersEffect size or
p value*
Statin non-users
N=143 505
Statin users
N=8853
≤5.6%
(N=83 593)
5.7%–5.9%
(N=36 771)
6.0%–6.4%
(N=23 141)
≤5.6%
(N=4594)
5.7%–5.9%
(N=2731)
6.0%–6.4%
(N=1528)
Mean age (SD), year51.5 (16.8)57.9 (11.6)47.3 (16.8)55.6 (15.4)59.7 (14.0)56.0 (12.3)59.5 (10.5)60.7 (10.3)0.096
Gender, male, n (%)126 868 (88.0)8284 (94.0)72 178 (86.0)33 253 (90.0)21 437 (93.0)4281 (93.0)2559 (94.0)1444 (95.0)0.087
Ethnicity, n (%)0.090
Caucasian110 647 (77.0)7450 (84.0)67 455 (81.0)27 366 (74.0)15 826 (68.0)4000 (87.0)2289 (84.0)1161 (76.0)
 African American27 919 (19.0)1159 (13.0)13 166 (16.0)8185 (22.0)6568 (28.0)472 (10.0)367 (13.0)320 (21.0)
 Other4939 (3.0)244 (3.0)2972 (4.0)1220 (3.0)747 (3.0)122 (3.0)75 (3.0)47 (3.0)
Mean follow-up (SD), years6.9 (2.3)3.8 (2.3)7.3 (1.8)6.8 (2.2)5.5 (3.0)3.9 (2.3)3.9 (2.3)3.7 (2.3)0.167
Mean BMI (SD), kg/m228.5 (5.4)28.9 (5.2)27.9 (5.1)28.8 (5.5)29.9 (5.9)28.6 (5.0)29.1 (5.2)29.9 (5.5)0.018
Mean HbA1c (SD), %5.6 (0.4)5.6 (0.3)5.3 (0.3)5.8 (0.1)6.1 (0.1)5.3 (0.2)5.8 (0.1)6.1 (0.1)0.695
Hypertension, n (%)48 475 (34.0)4406 (50.0)22 736 (27.0)14 272 (39.0)11 467 (50.0)2112 (46.0)1414 (52.0)880 (58.0)0.191
Mean LDL-C, (SD), mg/dL101.8 (30.9)114.4 (31.9)100.6 (30.7)104.0 (31.0)103.0 (31.4)113.4 (31.6)114.9 (32.0)116.4 (32.5)0.012
Cerebrovascular disease, n (%)2525 (2.0)253 (3.0)1252 (1.0)692 (2.0)601 (3.0)139 (3.0)70 (3.0)44 (3.0)0.034
Coronary artery disease, n (%)5772 (4.0)501 (6.0)2227 (3.0)1744 (5.0)1801 (8.0)207 (5.0)165 (6.0)129 (8.0)0.095
Metformin use, n (%)2532 (2.0)209 (2.0)849 (1.0)663 (2.0)1020 (4.0)72 (2.0)77 (3.0)60 (4.0)0.090
Type of statin
Atorvastatin, n (%)4394 (50.0)2387 (52.0)1285 (47.0)722 (47.0)
Simvastatin, n (%)3189 (36.0)1599 (35.0)999 (37.0)591 (39.0)
Pravastatin, n (%)1270 (14.0)608 (13.0)447 (16.0)215 (14.0)
Unadjusted HR of NODM compared with A1c ≤5.6% in non-users1.00 (ref)1.68 (1.58 to 1.80)1.00 (ref)2.6 (2.5 to 2.8)9.3 (8.9 to 9.7)2.5 (2.2 to 2.8)4.6 (4.1 to 5.2)9.7 (8.7 to 10.8)<0.0001
Unadjusted HR of NODM for all statin users compared with respective A1c category in non-users1.00 (ref)1.68 (1.58 to 1.80)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)2.50 (2.22 to 2.82)1.75 (1.56 to 1.96)1.04 (0.94 to 1.16)<0.0001
Adjusted HR of NODM for all statin users compared with respective A1c category in non-users1.00 (ref)1.40 (1.31 to 1.50)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)2.08 (1.85 to 2.35)1.57 (1.40 to 1.75)1.03 (0.93 to 1.15)<0.0001
Adjusted HR of NODM for individual statin groups
Atorvastatin1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)2.28 (1.91 to 2.71)1.85 (1.56 to 2.19)1.21 (1.03 to 1.41)<0.0001
 Simvastatin1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)2.05 (1.72 to 2.46)1.45 (1.22 to 1.72)0.98 (0.84 to 1.15)0.015
 Pravastatin1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.69 (1.23 to 2.32)1.30 (0.98 to 1.71)0.78 (0.58 to 1.04)0.13
Adjusted HR of NODM for statin intensity groups
High intensity1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)2.62 (1.94 to 3.54)1.93 (1.43 to 2.61)1.30 (0.99 to 1.71)0.21
 Moderate intensity1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.92 (1.64 to 2.27)1.61 (1.38 to 1.87)0.99 (0.86 to 1.14)<0.0001
 Low intensity1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.96 (1.49 to 2.57)1.19 (0.91 to 1.56)0.78 (0.60 to 1.03)0.71
  • *Effect sizes for baseline characteristics to assess confounding or p values for testing significance in the HR trends between non-users and statin users across A1c ranges.

  • BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; NODM, new-onset diabetes mellitus.