Table 1

Sociodemographic characteristics of women participants by nativity status and length of stay (n=9525)

Characteristics (%)US-bornForeign-bornP value*Foreign-bornP value†
<10 years≥10 years
Weighted n3 129 880772 210188 141584 069
Unweighted n777717484211327
Age, mean (±SE)36.3 (0.1)37.4 (0.2)<0.00134.2 (0.4)36.4 (0.4)<0.001
Marital status<0.001<0.001
 Not married48.734.228.935.9
 ≤High school29.346.237.649.0
 Some college37.520.418.221.1
 ≥Bachelor’s degree33.133.444.229.8
Poverty-income ratio (PIR)<0.001<0.001
Employment status<0.001<0.001
 Not employed22.234.443.631.4
Health insurance status<0.001<0.001
 Not insured10.225.223.925.6
Have usual place to go when sick<0.001<0.001
 No usual place11.418.525.316.3
 Have a usual place88.681.574.783.7
 Non-Hispanic white67.813.815.513.2
 Non-Hispanic black18.49.312.68.3
 Non-Hispanic Asian1.221.328.918.9
 Other races1.
Obesity status0.340.17
Hypertension history<0.001<0.001
 No history81.789.892.588.9
 Positive hypertension18.310.27.511.1
Alcohol use<0.001<0.001
 Never drinker14.045.757.741.9
 Former drinker12.
 Current light drinker57.140.330.143.5
 Current heavy drinker16.
Current smoker<0.001<0.001
 Never smoker61.089.193.887.6
 Former smoker21.
 Current smoker17.
Physical activity status<0.001<0.001
 Insufficiently active20.921.120.921.1
GDM history0.0270.002
  • P values by t-test for continuous variables and χ2 test for binary/categorical variables.

  • PIR <1: below poverty level; PIR 1–1.99: between 100 and 200 of poverty level; PIR ≥2: >200 above poverty level.

  • Number of participants with missing data on education (n=13), PIR (n=15), employment (n=15), health insurance (n=29), BMI (183), hypertension (4), alcohol use (142), smoking (24), and physical activity (149).

  • *Comparing US-born with foreign-born.

  • †Comparing US-born with foreign-born with <15 years and ≥15 years length of US residence.

  • BMI, body mass index; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus.