Table 1

Baseline characteristics of subjects with diabetes and heart failure according to study regions and antihyperglycemic therapy (first-time users from 2010 to 2018)

VariablesApuliaLombardy
SGLT-2i
(531)
GLP-1RA
(459)
Insulin
(7027)
Other AHAs
(5704)
Total
(13 721)
P-valueSGLT-2i
(786)
GLP-1RA
(759)
Insulin
(10 950)
Other AHAs
(8160)
Total
(20 655)
P-value*
Age (years), mean±SD§68.8±7.967.7±8.478.4±8.776.8±8.977.0±9.1<0.000170.4±8.169.5±8.479.0±8.578.6±8.778.2±8.9<0.0001
Age groups (years), n (%)†
50–5975 (14.1)81 (17.7)216 (3.1)220 (3.9)592 (4.3)<0.0001<0.0001
60–6482 (15.4)86 (18.77)316 (4.5)355 (6.2)839 (6.1)80 (10.2)99 (13.0)251 (2.3)228 (2.8)658 (3.2)
65–69133 (25.1)103 (22.4)575 (8.2)620 (10.9)1431 (10.4)95 (12.091)126 (16.6)445 (4.1)359 (4.4)1025 (5.0)
70–74107 (20.2)90 (19.6)935 (13.3)898 (15.7)2030 (14.8)165 (21.0)146 (19.2)861 (7.9)629 (7.7)1801 (8.7)
75–7981 (15.3)60 (17.0)1487 (21.2)1210 (21.2)2838 (20.7)193 (24.6)160 (21.1)1423 (13.001156 (14.2)2932 (14.2)
80+53 (10.0)39 (8.5)3498 (49.8)2401 (42.1)5991 (43.7)151 (19.2)129 (17.0)2261 (20.7)1669 (20.5)4210 (20.4)
Female, n (%)†209 (39.36)201 (43.79)3515 (50.02)2942 (51.58)6867 (50.05)<0.0001102 (13.0)99 (13.0)5709 (52.1)4419 (50.5)10 209 (48.6)<0.0001
Comorbidities, n (%)†
Cerebrovascular disease107 (20.15)68 (14.81)1634 (23.3)1409 (24.7)3218 (23.45)<0.000191 (11.6)80 (10.5)1939 (17.7)1403 (17.2)3513 (17.1)<0.0001
Stroke (all)22 (4.14)14 (3.05)355 (5.1)260 (4.6)651 (4.7)0.154523 (2.93)20 (2.64)470 (4.29)317 (3.88)830 (4.0)0.0335
Ischemic heart disease
Myocardial infarction153 (28.1)106 (23.1)1637 (23.3)1193 (20.9)3089 (22.5)<0.0001208 (26.4)155 (20.4)2695 (24.6)1916 (23.5)4974 (24.1)0.0335
Other coronary disease276 (52.0)195 (42.5)2896 (41.2)2468 (43.3)5835 (42.5)<0.0001383 (48.7)340 (44.8)4247 (38.8)3213 (39.4)8183 (39.6)<0.0001
Atrial fibrillation122 (23.0)127 (27.7)2795 (39.8)2036 (35.7)5080 (37.0)<0.0001216 (27.5)232 (30.6)4226 (38.6)3214 (39.4)7888 (38.2)<0.0001
Peripheral vascular disease96 (18.1)114 (24.8)1271 (18.1)1072 (18.8)2553 (18.6)0.0041106 (13.5)95 (12.5)1543 (14.1)961 (11.8)2705 (13.1)<0.0001
Lower limb complication12 (2.3)23 (5.0)140 (2.0)122 (2.1)297 (2.2)0.000328 (3.6)27 (3.5)428 (3.9)263 (3.2)746 (3.6)0.0968
Pulmonary embolism3 (0. 6)4 (0.9)50 (0.7)37 (0.7)94 (0.7)0.91223 (0.4)7 (0.9)189 (1.7)132 (1.6)331 (1.6)0.0133
Renal disease71 (13.4)99 (21.6)2201 (31.3)1370 (24.0)3741 (27.3)<0.000161 (7.8)118 (15.5)2968 (27.1)1727 (21.1)4874 (23.6)<0.0001
Neuropathy26 (4.9)25 (5.5)189 (2.7)242 (4.2)482 (3.5)<0.000139 (4.9)34 (4.5)320 (2.9)307 (3.8)700 (3.4)0.0002
Diabetic retinopathy1 (0.19)0 (0.0)20 (0.28)34 (0.6)54 (0.4)0.01645 (0.6)1 (0.1)29 (0.3)24 (0.3)59 (0.3)0.2399
COPD137 (25.8)140 (30.5)2817 (40.1)2290 (40.2)5384 (39.2)<0.0001144 (18.3)185 (24.3)2293 (20.9)1749 (21.4)4371 (21.2)0.0273
Cancer57 (10.7)50 (10.9)1294 (18.4)922 (16.2)2323 (16.9)<0.000171 (9.0)81 (10.7)1832 (16.7)1317 (16.1)3301 (16.0)<0.0001
Cardiovascular interventions, n (%)†
Percutaneous coronary intervention/coronary artery by-pass/other revascularizations45 (8.5)47 (10.2)721 (10.3)624 (10.9)1437 (10.5)0.266798 (12.5)122 (16.1)1425 (13.0)1133 (13.9)2778 (13.4)0.0410
Valve replacement
/annuloplasty
/valvuloplasty
15 (2.8)15 (3.3)252 (3.6)173 (3.0)455 (3.32)0.330256 (7.2)42 (5.6)542 (4.9)466 (5.6)1106 (5.3)0.0148
Device therapy, n (%)†
Ventricular assist device1 (0.2)2 (0.4)7 (0.1)1 (0.02)11 (0.1)0.01100 (0.0)1 (0.1)5 (0.1)2 (0.0)8 (0.0)0.4660
Implantable cardioverter/defibrillator69 (13.0)46 (10.0)641 (9.1)508 (8.9)1264 (9.2)0.017360 (7.6)74 (9.7)646 (5.9)472 (5.8)1252 (6.1)<0.0001
Cardiac resynchronization therapy20 (3.8)17 (3.7)149 (2.1)112 (2.0)298 (2.2)0.005468 (8.6)33 (4.3)438 (4.0)273 (3.3)812 (3.9)<0.0001
Pacemaker implantation32 (6.0)25 (5.5)546 (7.8)481 (8.4)1084 (7.9)0.032942 (5.3)47 (6.2)990 (9.0)844 (9.0)1923 (9.3)<0.0001
DDCI Index‡, median (Q1–Q3)8 (7–10)9 (7–10)9 (7–10)9 (7–10)9 (7–10)<0.00018 (7–10)8
(7–10)
8 (7–10)8 (6–10)8 (7–10)<0.0001
No. of hospital admissions‡, median (Q1–Q3)3 (2–5)4 (2–6)4 (2–6)4 (2–7)4 (2–6)<0.00013 (2–5)4 (2–6)4 (2–6)4 (2–6)4 (2–6)0.1567
History of diabetes, n (%)†
0–4 years3 (0.6)31 (6.8)907 (12.9)1368 (24.0)2309 (16.8)<0.00012 (0.2)63 (8.3)1058 (9.6)1969 (24.1)3092 (15.0)<0.0001
5–9 years101 (19.0)144 (31.4)2831 (40.3)2438 (42.7)5514 (40.2)130 (16.5)188 (24.7)2599 (23.7)1984 (24.3)4901 (23.7)
10+years427 (80.4)284 (61.9)3289 (46.8)1898 (33.3)5898 (43.0)654 (83.3)508 (67.0)7293 (66.7)4207 (51.6)12 662 (61.3)
Median (Q1–Q3)‡10 (10–10)10 (8–10)9 (7–10)8(5–10)9 (6–10)10 (10–10)10 (8–10)10 (8–10)10 (5–10)10 (7–10)
  • Stroke (all), haemorrhagic and ischemic stroke.

  • *P value for the comparison between study cohorts.

  • †χ2 test for categorical variables.

  • ‡Kruskal-Wallis test for other numerical variables.

  • §ANOVA was applied for age.

  • AHA, antihyperglycemic agent; ANOVA, analysis of variance; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DDCI, Drug Derived Complexity Index; GLP-1RA, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist; Q1–Q3, Quartile 1–Quartile 3; SGLT-2i, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor.