Table 1

Malaria exposure during pregnancy and offspring health in Tanzania (n=76)

Malaria negativePeripheral malariaPeripheral+placental malariaP valueP value adjusted
N174514
Sex (male/female)11/621/2412/20.03
Mother’s age (year)25 (22–30)23 (19–30)20 (19–25)0.21
Max malaria density in pregnancy
(f/cc)—peripheral*
02640 (480–7720)7320 (2640–36480)0.16
Attack frequency*02 (1–2)2 (1–3)0.79
Offspring
Birth weight (kg)3.0 (2.5–3.0)2.8 (2.5–3.2)2.6 (2.4–3.0)0.38
Age (years)20 (19–20)20 (19–20)20 (19–20)0.94
Height (cm)162.1 (157–165.5)159.4 (155.2–165)164.2 (158.–166.4)0.600.81
Weight (kg)54.3 (49.8–57.4)52.1 (47.0–55.5)51.0 (47.8–56.8)0.710.74
Fat %7.8 (6.7–10.5)11.5 (7.6–17.4)7.6 (4.6–13.0)0.120.91
Waist circumference (cm)70.5 (67.4–75.0)71.7 (68.5–74.8)73.2 (67.0–74.1)0.820.78
Visceral fat (cm)5.0 (4.4–6.39)4.9 (3.7–5.7)5.5 (4.6–5.8)0.430.70
Subcutaneous fat (cm)†0.94 (0.64–1.13)0.92 (0.71–1.90)0.98 (0.71–1.46)0.640.59
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)129 (122–136)128 (116.5–134)114 (111–132)0.400.24
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)†75 (72–80)78.5 (71–85)73 (66–78)0.160.39
Estimated aerobic fitness (mLO2/min/kg)†37.9 (29.5–50.6)31.9 (23.1–43.7)46.9 (41.8–51.2)0.050.83
FPIR†3630±16544686±30563172±22740.270.58
Phi1†35.0 (29.9–46.2)43.3 (27.1–74.7)21.0 (19.–38.8)0.160.39
M-value9.9±2.310.3±3.09.9±3.00.930.72
DI:whole body†29 063 (19 860–46 986)35 416 (24 243–71 973)32 877 (12 145–53 437)0.250.51
DI:hepatic†2534 (1753–3124)2388 (1738–4212)1950 (604–3296)0.550.56
  • Normal distributed data are presented as mean±SD and skewed data as median and IQR. Linear regression analyses (GLM procedures) were performed to examine differences in the outcome of interest and malaria exposure.

  • P value adjusted for sex.

  • FPIR: (0–10 min (AUCins0−10−(ins0×10 min)). Phi1: AUCins/AUCglu. M-value: mg glucose/min/kg FFM. DI:whole body: whole body insulin secretion DI−M-value×FPIR. DI:hepatic: hepatic insulin secretion DI: FPIR/HOMA-IR. N M-value: 10, 24 and 4 in each exposure group and N for DI:hepatic 9, 22, 2, respectively.

  • *t-test performed.

  • †P values from log-transformed data due to skewed residuals.

  • AUC, area under the curve; DI, disposition index; FFM, fat free mass; FPIR, first phase insulin response; GLM, general linear model; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance.