Table 2

Metabolic pathways significantly impacted by GDM, with p<0.05 and impact >0.10, sorted by impact, KEGG database*

Pathway name†Significant metabolites (univariate
Measured metabolitesTotal metabolitesMetabolites involvedP valueFDRImpact
Valine, isoleucine, and leucine (BCAAs) biosynthesis168Valine, leucine, 3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid, α-ketoisovaleric acid, isoleucine, threonine0.0400.0731.00
Alanine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid metabolism4728Aspartic acid, asparagine, alanine, glutamic acid, glutamine, citric acid, pyruvic acid0.0060.0210.53
Glutamine and glutamic acid metabolism226Glutamic acid, glutamine<0.0010.0040.50
Arginine biosynthesis4614Glutamic acid, arginine, citrulline, aspartic acid, ornithine, glutamine0.0010.0050.48
Arginine and proline metabolism4738Arginine, creatine, glutamic acid, ornithine, pyruvic acid, proline, guanidinoacetic acid0.0010.0050.37
Nitrogen metabolism226Glutamic acid, glutamine<0.0010.0040.25
Histidine metabolism1416Glutamic acid, histidine, methyl-l-histidine, aspartic acid0.0260.0590.22
Pyruvic acid metabolism2222Pyruvic acid, lactic acid0.0390.0730.21
Glyoxylic acid and dicarboxylic acid metabolism4632Citric acid, serine, glycine, glutamic acid, pyruvic acid, glutamine0.0040.0160.18
Tryptophan metabolism1141Tryptophan0.0270.0590.14
Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies1153-Hydroxybutyric acid0.0020.010.14
Tyrosine metabolism1242Tyrosine, pyruvic acid0.0260.0590.14
Citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle)2220Citric acid, pyruvic acid0.0280.0590.14
Butyric acid metabolism22153-Hydroxybutyric acid, glutamic acid<0.0010.0030.13
Cysteine and methionine metabolism2433Serine, methionine, cystine, pyruvic acid0.010.0290.13
Glutathione metabolism4428Glycine, glutamic acid, oxoproline, ornithine0.0010.0060.12
Glycolysis/ gluconeogenesis3326Glucose, pyruvic acid, lactic acid<0.001<0.0010.10
  • *Adapted from MetaboAnalyst results (

  • †There were four additional pathways with p<0.05, where pathway impact was <0.10: valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, propanoate metabolism, and pyrimidine metabolism.

  • BCAA, branched-chain amino acid; FDR, false discovery rate; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus; KEGG, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes.