Table 2

Results and quality of studies on measurement properties of diabetes-specific PROMs measuring physical functioning in people with type 2 diabetes

PROM—subscaleStructural validityInternal consistencyCross-cultural validity\ measurement invarianceReliabilityMeasurement errorCriterion validityHypotheses testing for construct validity,*Responsiveness
DFS—Daily activities42Inadequate
?
Inadequate
?
Inadequate
Daily life: −
Dependence: +
a. Adequate 4+ / 1−
b. Very good ?
c. Doubtful
2−
DFS-SF study 1—Dependence/daily life34Inadequate
?
Very good
+
Inadequate
+
a. Adequate 2+ / 3−c. Very good
1−
DFS-SF study 2—Dependence/daily life34Very good
+
Very good
+
Inadequate
+
a. Adequate 2+ / 3−c. Very good
1+
DFS-SF Polish—Dependence/daily life45Very good
+
Inadequate
+
a. Very good 4+ / 3−;
b1. Inadequate 1+ / 3−;
b2. Doubtful ?
DFS-SF Chinese—Dependence/daily life38Very good
+
a. Very good 5+ / 2−
b. Very good 1+ / 1−
DFS-SF Greek—Dependence/daily life60Very good
+
a. Very good 4+ / 3−
b. Very good 14+ / 1−
DFS-SF Spanish—Dependence/daily life61Inadequate
CFA: −
EFA: +
Very good
+
Doubtful
+
a. Adequate 4+ / 1−c. Very good
1+
PRO-DM-Thai—Physical function35Very good
+
Very good
+
b1. Inadequate 1−;
b2. Very good ?
IWADL/APPADL—(Physical) activities of daily living36Doubtful
+
Very good
+
b. Very good 12+ / 22−
IWADL/APPADL—(Physical) activities of daily living46Very good
+
Adequate
+
Doubtful
d. Very good
2+ / 1−
QOLID—Physical endurance37Inadequate
+
Very good
?
a. Adequate 3+ / 3−
b. Very good 3−
DQLCTQ—Physical function44Doubtful
?
Adequate
+
b. Very good 1+ / 1−c. Very good
2−
Diabetes-39—Energy and Mobility (pilot version, 14 items)43Adequate
+
Very good
+
b. Adequate ?
Diabetes-39—Energy and Mobility (15 items)43Adequate
+
Very good
+
a. Adequate 6+ / 4−
b. Doubtful ?
Diabetes-39 Arabic—Energy and Mobility (15 items)39Doubtful
+
Very good
+
a. Adequate 2+ / 3−
Diabetes-39 Vietnamese—Energy and mobility (15 items)40Very good
+
Doubtful
+
b. Very good 4+ / 6−
Diabetes-39 Portuguese—Energy and Mobility (15 items)41Very good
+
b. Very good ?
Diabetes-39 Spanish—Energy and Mobility (15 items)51Very good
+
Doubtful
+
b. Very good ?
Diabetes-39 Taiwan—Energy and Mobility (15 items)59Very good
+
a. Very good ?
b. Very good 7+ / 5−
Diabetes-39 Taiwan—Energy and Mobility (15 items)48Adequate
+
Diabetes-39 Thai—Energy and Mobility (10 items)49Adequate
Very good
?
a. Adequate 2+ / 3−
b. Very good 4+ / 2−
Diabetes-39 German—Physical impairment (seven items)50Inadequate
?
Doubtful
?
Doubtful
?
a. Very good ?
b. Very good 4+
d. Doubtful
?
Diabetes-39 SF—Energy and Mobility (five items)48Very good
+
C-CWIS—Physical symptoms and everyday living47Adequate
+
Very good
+
a. Inadequate ?
b. Inadequate 1+
  • +: sufficient rating; −: insufficient rating; ?: indeterminate rating.

  • *a: comparison with other instruments, b: comparison between subgroups.

  • †a: comparison to gold standard, b: comparison with other instruments, c: comparison between subgroups, d: before and after intervention.

  • C-CWIS, Chinese Cardiff Wound Impact Schedule; CFA, confirmatory factor analysis; DFS, Diabetic Foot Ulcer Scale; DFS-SF, Diabetic Foot Ulcer Scale—Short Form; DQLCTQ, Diabetes Quality of Life Clinical Trial Questionnaire; EFA, exploratory factor analysis; IWADL/APPADL, Impact of Weight on Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire; PRO-DM-Thai, patient-reported outcomes instrument for Thai patients with type 2 diabetes; PROMs, patient-reported outcome measures; QOLID, Quality of Life Instrument for Indian Diabetes Patients.