Table 1

Participant characteristics: the Gestational Diabetes’ Effects on Moms (GEM) study (N=1642)

Racial/ethnic background
Black61 (3.7)
Chinese American175 (10.7)
Filipina181 (11.0)
South Asian151 (9.2)
Asian, other164 (10.0)
Latina341 (20.8)
Non-Hispanic White394 (24.0)
Multiracial/other175 (10.7)
Education: less than a 4-year college degree816 (49.7)
0705 (42.9)
1566 (34.5)
≥2371 (22.6)
Elevated T2D risk297 (18.1)
Perinatal depression407 (24.8)
Attended postpartum visit1537 (93.6)
Preterm delivery182 (11.1)
Cesarean delivery547 (33.3)
Use of GDM medication457 (27.8)
GEM trial arm
Usual care838 (51.0)
Intervention804 (49.0)
  • Values are presented as frequencies (%).

  • T2D risk was computed per the American Diabetes Association risk test,23 26 including the following factors: age, body mass index, family history of diabetes, physical activity, history of hypertension, and history of GDM.

  • Missing data: education, n=2 (0.1%); T2D risk, n=28 (1.7%).

  • Asian, other included women who identified as East Asian (eg, Japanese, Korean) or Southeast Asian (eg, Vietnamese). Multiracial/other included women who identified with more than one racial/ethnic group, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, or backgrounds not otherwise indicated.

  • GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus; T2D, type 2 diabetes.