Table 1

Clinical characteristics of study participants

All n=174
Age, years66.9 (10.1)
Men, % (n)56.3% (98)
Duration of diabetes, years17.7 (11.6)
Family history of diabetes, % (n)46.0% (80)
Height, cm161.5 (9.5)
Body weight, kg61.7 (12.3)
Body mass index, kg/m223.5 (3.5)
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg128.3 (15.4)
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg73.3 (10.3)
Medication for hypertension, % (n)46.6% (81)
Insulin, % (n)25.4% (41)
Sulfonylurea, % (n)31.0% (54)
Glinide, % (n)16.7% (29)
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, % (n)62.6% (109)
Biguanide, % (n)47.7% (83)
Thiazolidine, % (n)2.3% (4)
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, % (n)16.7% (29)
Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, % (n)21.3% (37)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, % (n)10.9% (19)
Statin, % (n)42.0% (73)
Current smoker, % (n)14.4% (25)
Exerciser, % (n)57.5% (100)
Habitual alcohol consumption, % (n)32.7% (56)
HbA1c, mmol/mol56.5 (10.0)
HbA1c, %7.3 (0.9)
Plasma glucose, mmol/L8.1 (2.2)
Creatinine, mg/dL0.76 (0.23)
Cystatin C, mg/dL0.99 (0.26)
Sarcopenia index77.6 (15.8)
Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, cm/s1802 (372)
Subclinical atherosclerosis, % (n)43.7% (76)
  • HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c.