Table 2

Logistic regression analyses for the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis

All patients (n=174)Model 1Model 2Model 3
OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Age, year1.21 (1.12 to 1.30)<0.0011.20 (1.11 to 1.29)<0.0011.19 (1.11 to 1.28)<0.001
Men0.94 (0.35 to 2.52)0.8970.70 (0.29 to 1.68)0.4221.60 (0.53 to 4.85)0.406
Exercise habit1.15 (0.49 to 2.70)0.751.04 (0.44 to 2.43)0.9371.03 (0.44 to 2.44)0.938
Current smoker0.82 (0.26 to 2.59)0.7350.87 (0.26 to 2.88)0.820.70 (0.20 to 2.42)0.569
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg1.06 (1.03 to 1.09)<0.0011.06 (1.03 to 1.09)<0.0011.06 (1.03 to 1.09)<0.001
Body mass index, kg/m20.88 (0.76 to 1.02)0.0980.85 (0.73 to 0.99)0.0390.85 (0.74 to 0.99)0.031
HbA1c, %1.61 (0.94 to 2.76)0.0841.55 (0.90 to 2.66)0.1121.68 (0.95 to 2.95)0.074
Medication usage for hypertension1.60 (0.66 to 3.88)0.2991.43 (0.60 to 3.43)0.4241.38 (0.56 to 3.36)0.484
Insulin usage0.93 (0.35 to 2.51)0.8890.89 (0.33 to 2.40)0.8210.83 (0.30 to 2.30)0.721
SGLT2i usage2.51 (0.72 to 8.71)0.1482.99 (0.87 to 10.4)0.0832.72 (0.78 to 9.50)0.117
GLP-1RA usage2.80 (0.61 to 12.8)0.1842.31 (0.52 to 10.4)0.2742.48 (0.55 to 11.2)0.239
Stain usage0.34 (0.14 to 0.85)0.0210.35 (0.14 to 0.87)0.0230.33 (0.13 to 0.86)0.023
Creatinine, mg/dL0.26 (0.02 to 2.80)0.263
Cystatin C, mg/dL1.51 (0.24 to 9.60)0.658
Sarcopenia index, Δ1 incremental0.95 (0.91 to 0.99)0.015
Patients aged ≥65 years (n=121)Model 1Model 2Model 3
OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Age, year1.08 (0.97 to 1.20)0.1391.07 (0.96 to 1.18)0.221.06 (0.96 to 1.18)0.242
Men0.76 (0.24 to 2.41)0.6440.62 (0.22 to 1.78)0.3761.75 (0.46 to 6.69)0.416
Exercise habit0.91 (0.35 to 2.39)0.8490.83 (0.31 to 2.21)0.7120.82 (0.31 to 2.19)0.69
Current smoker0.71 (0.16 to 3.16)0.6580.67 (0.15 to 2.95)0.5960.54 (0.11 to 2.58)0.439
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg1.08 (1.04 to 1.12)<0.0011.08 (1.04 to 1.12)<0.0011.08 (1.04 to 1.13)<0.001
Body mass index, kg/m20.82 (0.69 to 0.98)0.0260.79 (0.66 to 0.94)0.010.79 (0.66 to 0.95)0.007
HbA1c, %1.38 (0.66 to 2.90)0.3971.25 (0.59 to 2.61)0.5611.33 (0.62 to 2.89)0.464
Medication usage for hypertension1.59 (0.56 to 4.59)0.3851.39 (0.48 to 3.99)0.5431.48 (0.51 to 4.29)0.466
Insulin usage0.93 (0.31 to 2.83)0.9010.91 (0.30 to 2.78)0.8670.74 (0.23 to 2.32)0.599
SGLT2i usage2.28 (0.51 to 10.1)0.2792.76 (0.62 to 12.4)0.1842.47 (0.54 to 11.4)0.245
GLP-1RA usage4.34 (0.58 to 32.3)0.1523.44 (0.50 to 23.9)0.2113.95 (0.54 to 28.8)0.175
Stain usage0.31 (0.11 to 0.90)0.0310.32 (0.11 to 0.94)0.0380.25 (0.08 to 0.80)0.019
Creatinine, mg/dL0.43 (0.03 to 5.96)0.531
Cystatin C, mg/dL2.45 (0.27 to 21.9)0.424
Sarcopenia index, Δ1 incremental0.94 (0.89 to 0.99)0.017
  • Sarcopenia index was calculated as (serum creatinine divided by serum cystatin C)×100.

  • GLP-1RA, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; SGLT2i, sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors.