Table 1

Demographic and biochemical parameters of the study population in different albuminuria groups

Normal-albuminuriaMicroalbuminuriaMacroalbuminuria
n904218
Age (years)60.00 (55.00–67.25)62.00 (55.75–69.00)61.50 (51.50–72.25)
Male, n (%)55 (61.11)25 (59.52)11 (61.11)
BMI (kg/m2)25.45±3.1926.27±3.2427.01±5.55
History of alcohol consumption, n (%)37 (41.11)16 (38.10)10 (55.56)
History of smoking, n (%)35 (38.89)16 (38.10)8 (44.44)
Hypertension, n (%)39 (43.33)28 (66.67)*15 (83.33)*
Diabetes duration (months)138.00 (96.00–240.00)138.00 (46.50–240.00)210.00 (78.00–315.00)
SBP (mm Hg)134.30±18.51142.88±21.69*141.67±24.20
DBP (mm Hg)73.00 (66.75–83.25)81.50 (70.75–90.25)*76.50 (66.25–83.00)
TC (mmol/L)4.20±1.074.26±1.083.83±0.92
LDL-C (mmol/L)2.33±0.792.50±0.822.16±0.68
HDL-C (mmol/L)1.10 (0.93–1.32)1.08 (0.91–1.23)0.98 (0.89–1.19)
TG (mmol/L)1.16 (0.83–1.55)1.40 (0.87–1.90)1.11 (0.96–1.88)
Serum albumin (g/L)43.27±3.2643.12±3.3038.79±3.93*†
eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2)98.46 (89.87–104.25)96.53 (91.79–104.93)89.32 (79.92–95.37)*†
HbA1c (%)7.1 (6.4–7.9)8.2 (6.8–9.7)*7.6 (6.9–10.2)
FBG (mmol/L)6.35±1.006.35±1.086.22±0.88
1-hour glucose13.75±2.8813.48±3.2313.13±3.72
2-hour glucose16.22±3.9716.02±4.0915.52±4.18
3-hour glucose14.14±4.4615.05±3.7015.37±4.21
Fasting C-peptide (ng/mL)1.06 (0.69–1.56)0.96 (0.54–1.68)0.90 (0.64–1.60)
1-hour C-peptide2.20 (1.53–3.32)2.29 (1.20–3.19)2.27 (1.19–3.60)
2-hour C-peptide3.72 (2.57–5.39)3.54 (2.21–4.86)2.92 (1.98–5.10)
3-hour C-peptide3.85 (2.76–5.10)3.23 (2.11–5.21)3.09 (2.05–5.07)
HOMA2-IR0.95 (0.70–1.25)1.18 (0.73–1.67)0.76 (0.66–1.86)
HOMA2-%S108.80±40.8899.04±47.18111.69±54.12
ACEI or ARB treatment, n (%)24 (26.67)20 (47.62)*9 (50.00)*
Insulin treatment, n (%)34 (37.78)21 (50.00)9 (50.00)
  • The data are expressed as the means±SD or median (IQR).

  • *P<0.05 compared with normal-albuminuria group.

  • †P<0.05 between microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria groups.

  • ACEI, ACE inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin II antagonist; BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; FBG, fasting blood glucose; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; Ism-1, isthmin-1; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride.