Table 3

Relationships between lifestyle factors and liver ectopic fat accumulation (L−S)

L-S value (95% CI)P value
Number of meals (/day)23
 MV13.4(–1.8 to 7.8)5.0 (3.2 to 6.7)0.47
 MV25.5 (0.6 to 9.7)4.7 (2.9 to 6.4)0.75
 MV35.5 (0.3 to 9.7)4.7 (2.9 to 6.4)0.76
 MV45.5 (0.9 to 9.5)4.7 (2.9 to 6.4)0.73
Snacknoyes
 MV16.4 (1.5 to 10.3)4.5 (2.6 to 6.2)0.42
 MV26.2 (1.5 to 10.1)4.7 (2.9 to 6.2)0.51
 MV36.2 (1.5 to 10.1)4.7 (2.9 to 6.2)0.49
 MV45.0 (0.3 to 9.1)4.7 (3.2 to 6.4)0.94
Exercisenoyes
 MV13.7 (1.2 to 6.0)5.6 (3.2 to 8.0)0.28
 MV24.0 (1.8 to 6.2)5.2 (2.6 to 7.6)0.49
 MV34.0 (1.5 to 6.2)5.2 (2.6 to 7.8)0.46
 MV44.7 (2.6 to 6.9)4.5 (1.8 to 6.9)0.79
Exercise at worknoyes
 MV14.4 (2.3 to 6.4)3.0(–2.5 to 7.6)0.58
 MV24.2 (2.1 to 6.0)5.5 (0.6 to 9.7)0.59
 MV34.2 (2.1 to 6.0)5.7 (0.6 to 9.7)0.58
 MV44.2 (2.3 to 6.2)5.0(–0.3 to 9.1)0.83
SmokeNeverPreviousCurrent
 MV15.3 (2.9 to 7.4)5.2 (2.3 to 7.8)3.3(–0.9 to 6.9)0.53
 MV25.0 (2.6 to 7.1)5.2 (2.1 to 8.0)4.7 (0.6 to 8.2)1
 MV34.7 (2.3 to 7.1)5.2 (2.1 to 8.0)4.7 (0.6 to 8.2)0.99
 MV44.5 (2.3 to 6.7)6.2 (3.4 to 8.7)4.0 (0.04 to 7.6)0.98
Alcohol intakeNoneIntermediateLarge
 MV15.9 (3.7 to 7.8)2.1(–1.5 to 5.2)5.8 (2.1 to 8.9)0.12
 MV25.5 (3.4 to 7.6)2.9(–0.6 to 6.0)6.0 (2.1 to 9.3)0.84
 MV35.5 (3.4 to 7.6)2.9(–0.6 to 6.0)6.2 (2.1 to 9.5)0.86
 MV46.2 (4.2 to 8.0)2.3(–1.2 to 5.2)5.0 (1.2 to 8.5)0.31
 Insomnianoyes
 MV14.9 (3.2 to 6.4)5.0 (0.04 to 9.1)0.97
 MV25.0 (3.4 to 6.7)4.5(–0.3 to 8.5)0.82
 MV35.0 (3.4 to 6.7)4.7(–0.3 to 8.7)0.88
 MV45.0 (3.4 to 6.4)5.2 (0.6 to 9.1)0.91
Sleep apnea syndromenoyes
 MV16.1 (4.2 to 7.8)–1.6(–6.6 to 2.6)0.002
 MV26.0 (4.2 to 7.6)–0.6(–5.5 to 3.7)0.005
 MV36.0 (4.2 to 7.6)–0.6(–5.5 to 4.0)0.008
 MV45.2 (3.4 to 7.1)2.9(–2.5 to 7.1)0.34
Nightwork shiftnoyes
 MV14.3 (2.3 to 6.2)1.7(–10.0 to 9.9)0.64
 MV24.2 (2.3 to 6.0)6.7(–3.1 to 13.6)0.59
 MV34.2 (2.3 to 6.2)6.7(–3.1 to 13.6)0.6
 MV44.5 (2.6 to 6.2)5.5(–4.5 to 12.5)0.82
  • Least squares mean (95% CI) values for L−S are shown.

  • MV1 model: not adjusted; MV2 model: adjusted for age and sex; MV3 model: further adjusted for hemoglobin A1c; MV4 model: further adjusted for body mass index.

  • MV, multivariate-adjusted model.