Table 1

Clinical characteristics of the participants

Age (years)63.0 (50.0, 71.0)
Sex (male/female)101/84
Number of meals per day (2/3) (n=165)22/143
Snack (no/yes) (n=169)22/147
Exercise (no/yes) (n=155)87/68
Exercise at work (no/yes) (n=135)115/20
Smoke (never/previous/current)93/58/34
Alcohol intake (none/intermediate/large)100/49/36
Insomnia (no/yes) (n=178)156/22
Sleep apnea syndrome (no/yes) (n=160)127/33
Night-shift work (no/yes) (n=136)130/6
P (HU)37.8 (31.2, 43.5)
L (HU)54.1 (45.9, 60.0)
S (HU)48.5 (44.9, 52.0)
Visceral fat area (cm2) (n=164)118.1 (87.8, 160.7)
Subcutaneous fat area (cm2) (n=164)174.6 (110.7, 248.7)
Body mass index (kg/m2)26.5 (23.9, 31.2)
Waist circumference (cm) (n=137)97.0 (88.0, 106.0)
Duration of diabetes (years) (n=164)10.0 (4.0, 18.0)
HbA1c (mmol/mol)74.0 (61.0, 95.0)
HbA1c (%)8.9 (7.7, 10.8)
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) (n=182)8.2 (6.8, 10.1)
AST (U/L)22.0 (17.0, 36.0)
ALT (U/L)25.0 (16.0, 48.0)
γ-GTP (U/L) (n=183)36.0 (22.0, 61.0)
AMY (U/L) (n=164)55.0 (44.0, 73.0)
BUN (mmol/L) (n=184)5.4 (4.3, 6.1)
Cre (µmol/L) (n=184)61.9 (53.0, 79.6)
UA (µmol/L) (n=178)339.0 (279.6, 398.5)
CRP (mg/L) (n=180)0.9 (0.4, 3.0)
T-Cho (mmol/L) (n=175)4.9 (4.3, 5.7)
HDL-C (mmol/L) (n=178)1.1 (1.0, 1.4)
LDL-C (mmol/L) (n=176)2.9 (2.3, 3.6)
TG (mmol/L) (n=178)1.6 (1.1, 2.2)
  • Values are median (first quartile, third quartile) for continuous variables and number (percentage) of participants for categorical variables.

  • ALT, alanine transaminase; AMY, amylase activities; AST, aspartate transaminase; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; Cre, creatinine; CRP, C reactive protein concentrations; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HU, Hounsfield units; L, mean CT values for the liver; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; P, mean CT values for the pancreas; S, mean CT values for the spleen; T-Cho, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; UA, uric acid; γ-GTP, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase.