Table 2

Mean scores and percentage agreement with belief statements representing barriers and enablers to diabetic retinopathy screening (DRS)

Belief statement (corresponding TDF domain)Mean scores% agreements
Mean (SD)NALLT1DT2DP valueRA%ONA%P value
‘I do not understand why diabetic eye screening is conducted’4.36 (1.19)1016.94.512.10.1665.113.60.168
‘I do not know what treatments are available if diabetic retinopathy is detected’1.81 (1.03)10084.087.978.10.20985.977.30.334
‘Diabetes education and training covers eye screening in detail’2.42 (1.46)10252.050.754.50.72251.359.10.518
Social/professional role/identity
‘I feel comfortable disclosing to others that I have diabetes’2.55 (1.48)10271.677.657.60.039*68.881.80.233
‘I would like to meet more young people with diabetes’2.87 (1.04)9747.453.833.30.06448.045.50.837
Beliefs about capabilities
‘I think that I manage my diabetes well’2.63 (1.03)97
Beliefs about consequences
‘Attending diabetic eye screening can help detect problems with my eyes early’1.19 (0.75)9998.098.596.80.58397.4100.00.458
‘The eye drops which dilate your pupils before screening are unpleasant’2.47 (1.16)10064.
‘I feel pressured to attend my diabetic eye screening appointments’3.80 (1.22)9719.621.516.70.56118.722.70.679
‘I will attend all my future diabetic eye screening appointments’1.24 (0.79)10197.098.593.90.21197.595.50.625
‘Attending diabetic eye screening appointments would be a higher priority for me if I experienced problems with my eyes’1.90 (1.05)9660.453.872.40.09156.872.70.183
‘Attending diabetic eye screening appointments is a high priority in terms of diabetes management’1.46 (0.83)10193.192.493.90.78592.495.50.614
Memory, Intention, Decision-making
‘It is easy to forget to attend diabetic eye screening appointments’3.16 (1.34)9932.328.838.70.332028.247.60.093
‘Reminders (eg, text messages, phone calls) about my diabetic eye screening appointments are helpful’1.06 (0.25)999998.5100.00.48998.7100.00.593
‘I am not notified of my appointment (eg, by letter/text message)’3.72 (1.59)10025.022.731.30.36223.131.80.408
‘Diabetic eye screening appointment letters are sent too far in advance’3.38 (1.13)10025.027.321.90.56725.622.70.782
Environmental Context and Resources
‘My diabetic eye screening appointments are at a different time and place to my other diabetes appointments’1.97 (1.33)10175.258.554.80.73374.777.30.804
‘I am unable to get time off work/study to attend diabetic eye screening appointments’3.44 (1.50)9931.330.831.30.96023.459.10.002*
‘I would like to be offered more options for appointment days/times when booking diabetic eye screening appointments’2.00 (1.23)9567.465.669.00.74966.271.40.656
‘Diabetic eye screening appointments take up too much time in my day’3.72 (1.30)10029.033.321.90.24923.150.00.015*
‘My doctors and nurses check whether I have attended my diabetic eye screening appointments and encourage me to attend'2.61 (1.50)9858.258.554.80.73355.368.20.283
Social influences
‘I find seeing older people with worse complications in the eye screening waiting room upsetting’3.09 (1.28)10040.041.533.30.43338.545.50.558
‘I would like more support and information following my diabetic eye screening results’2.38 (1.16)10066.069.759.40.31467.959.10.444
‘There is a lack of awareness among the general public that younger people can have diabetes’1.67 (0.88)9782.581.586.70.58988.063.60.009*
‘I have had bad experiences when discussing diabetic eye screening with healthcare professionals’4.22 (1.13)10016.
Behavioural regulation
‘I have developed strategies to help me remember to attend my diabetic eye screening appointments’2.00 (1.17)10146.537.963.60.019*50.631.80.120
‘I worry about diabetic retinopathy’2.06 (1.12)10174.378.866.70.19473.477.30.713
‘I sometimes feel overwhelmed due to my diabetes’2.70 (1.24)979776.956.70.046*
‘I feel reassured by attending diabetic eye screening’1.91 (1.09)10075.075.875.00.83774.477.30.782
‘I feel anxious about receiving my diabetic eye screening results’2.56 (1.41)10063.363.662.50.92062.863.60.946
  • The mean scores correspond to the extent to which participants agreed with each statement using a 5-point Likert scale (strongly agree=1; somewhat agree=2; neither agree nor disagree=3; somewhat disagree=4; strongly disagree=5). The p value represents the results of the χ2 test for differences between T1D and T2D subgroups and between RA and ONA. Highlighted values indicate statistically significant differences.

  • ONA, occasional non-attender; RA, regular attender; T1D, type 1 diabetes; T2D, type 2 diabetes; TDF, Theoretical Domains Framework.