Table 1

Baseline clinical and biochemical parameters according to histopathological classification (N=110)

DKD (n=73)NDKD (n=20)Mixed kidney disease (n=17)P value (calculated between DKD and NDKD groups)
Age (year)51 (45.5–56.5)52.5 (45.25–58.75)47 (40.0–54.5)0.607
Age of onset (year)40 (33.5–46.5)50.12 (41.62–53.37)38 (34–50)0.001
Known duration of disease (months)120 (60–180)36 (6–57)78 (48–120)<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)24.87 (22.9–27.09)23.24 (21.77–25.35)22.76 (20.83–24.8)0.118
Cholesterol (mg/dL)179 (140.0–221.75)194 (163–337)166 (135.7–223.0)0.06
Triglyceride (mg/dL)176 (117.2–243.5)158 (133–280)160 (96–70)0.93
HDL (mg/dL)49 (42.25–58.0)55 (45–81)46.5 (32.0–57.75)0.1
LDL (mg/dL)88 (59–120)110 (74–223)78 (58.0–120.1)0.07
Albumin (g/dL)3.6 (2.9–4)3.7 (2.45–4.12)3.9 (3.5–4.1)0.992
Uric acid (mg/dL)6.7 (5.1–8.6)6.6 (5.2–7.8)8 (7.4–9.2)0.784
HbA1c (mmol/mol)7.7 (6.7–9.7)6.4 (5.7–6.8)9 (6.9–10.8)0.003
Urea (mg/dL)38(27-56)31(23-52)39(25-56)0.226
Creatinine (mg/dL)1.45 (1.2–1.7)1.1 (0.8–1.6)1.48 (1.08–1.76)0.02
eGFR (CKD-EPI) (mL/min/1.73 m2)50 (39.3–65.9)60 (46.8–91.5)42.6 (52.9–79)0.05
Hb (%)10.8 (9.8–12.45)12.14 (11.2–13.45)12.95 (10.42–12.95)0.01
24-hour protein (mg)2544.5 (714.2–5832.7)2215 (942.6–5034.8)2573.3 (1104–9428.8)0.932
RBC (/HPF)0.07
Family history of diabetes (%)57.540.012.30.15
Family history of kidney disease (%)13.65.023.50.22
Unequal kidney (%)6.81000.64
Small kidney (%)13.6915.017.60.56
High C3 level (%)0400.215
High C4 level (%)17.830.011.760.186
ANA positive (%)8.24.05.80.531
ANCA positive1.364.000.386
PR3/MPO/anti-GBM positive000
High-level dsDNA (%)2.700
Presence of nephrotic range proteinuria (%)42.453.847.050.61
Presence of hematuria (%)16.4335.029.40.113
Urinary cast (%)8.210.029.40.68
Presence of hypertension (%)76.755.076.40.08
Absence of retinopathy (%)309530.3<0.001
Absence of neuropathy (%)13.466.018.18<0.001
  • Continuous data presented as median (IQR), and comapared by Mann–Whitney U test and categorical data presented as percentage (%) and compared by Chi-Square Test. As approximately 30 variables were tested, the p value for significance was taken as <0.001 using Bonferroni’s correction.

  • ANA, antinuclear antibody; ANCA, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody; BMI, body mass index; CKD-EPI, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration; DKD, diabetic kidney disease; dsDNA, double-stranded DNA; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; Hb, hemoglobin; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HPF, high-power field; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; NDKD, non-diabetic kidney disease; RBC, red blood cell.