Table 3

Incidence rate and HR of all-cause mortality of the patient groups

No DM and CVDDM with HbA1c <7%DM with HbA1c 7%–7.9%DM with HbA1c 8%–8.9%DM with HbA1c ≥9%CVD onlyDM and CVD
Hong Kong cohort
 Number of participants3 396 41759 10555 64833 41340 860179 97473 974
 Number of deaths (% of number of participants)264 268 (7.8)16 314 (27.6)13 565 (24.4)8257 (24.7)9636 (23.6)73 168 (40.7)38 610 (52.2)
 Median follow-up period (months)108.5130.5130.5130.5121.596.590.5
 Person-years26 912 392535 843524 666312 960349 4041 290 515511 068
 Incidence rate (cases/1000 person-years)9.8230.4525.8526.3827.5856.7075.55
 HR (95% CI)1 (reference)1.25 (1.23 to 1.27)1.21 (1.19 to 1.23)1.36 (1.33 to 1.39)1.82 (1.78 to 1.85)1.37 (1.36 to 1.38)1.83 (1.81 to 1.85)
UK Biobank
 Number of participants449 93682073556142999929 1384514
 Number of deaths (% of number of participants)15 083 (3.4)590 (7.2)259 (7.3)111 (7.8)95 (9.5)2912 (10.0)794 (17.6)
 Median follow-up period (months)137.0134.7135.8135.3133.8136.1133.1
 Person-years5 070 53989 92839 16015 63210 795316 54246 723
 Incidence rate (cases/1000 person-years)2.976.566.617.108.809.2016.99
 HR (95% CI)1 (reference)1.45 (1.33 to 1.58)1.50 (1.32 to 1.70)1.72 (1.43 to 2.08)2.51 (2.05 to 3.08)1.67 (1.59 to 1.75)2.62 (2.42 to 2.83)
  • HR was adjusted with sex, age, smoking status, disease status of atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, amputation, dementia, chronic lung disease, connective tissue disease, peptic ulcer disease, liver disease, chronic kidney disease, hemiplegia, cancer, obesity, hyperlipidemia and hypertension at baseline in the Hong Kong cohort. In the case of UK Biobank, HR was adjusted with the above variables, as well as ethnicity and Townsend Deprivation Index.

  • CVD includes coronary heart disease, heart failure and stroke.

  • CVD, cardiovascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c.