Table 4

Median WTP estimates and average uptake rates compared with traditional finger prick

The Netherlands WTPPoland WTP
MedianIQRMedianIQR
Increase precision from
 Low to medium15.9427.73–3.9310.18−3.19 to 21.23***
 Medium to high15.873.72–26.4322.174.54–41.84
 Low to high31.827.60–54.7333.641.02–59.45
Reduce daily finger-pricks: 2–032.7114.34–63.4113.354.28–30.34***
Improve chance of skin irritation
 High to medium10.3918.86–5.5613.86.38–27.87**
 Medium to low18.712.52–32.7916.068.20–34.52*
 High to low28.9716.55–52.529.8314.47–61.74
Improve effort from medium to low11.328.78–22.243.552.31–7.4***
Improve glucose information with
 An arrow showing blood glucose is changing10.227.70–19.492.581.68–5.38***
 Daily trend information14.197.92–20.074.62.99–9.59***
Get a glucose alarm14.197.15–25.7412.677.44–24.02
WTP to not use finger-prick test27.74−231.85 to 278.2365.01−183.76 to 295.5**
Estimated Uptake RatesMost preferred device (%)†FGM proxy device (%)‡FGM proxy with reduced cost (%)§
Total samples
 The Netherlands (n=226)63.644.454.8
 Poland (n=261)77.1***56.1**67.6***
Age 18–50
 Netherlands (n=88)69.151.759.9
 Poland (n=202)78.9*59.5***69.5*
Age 50 and over
 Netherlands (n=137)60.439.951.9
 Poland (n=59)70.944.361.1
FP only users
 Netherlands (n=128)57.537.848
 Poland (n=211)75***53.6***65.8***
CGM/FGM users
 Netherlands (n=38)78.266.773
 Poland (n=39)85.370.276.7
Type 1
 Netherlands (n=65)70.853.162
 Poland (n=83)81.763.271.7
Type 2
 Netherlands (n=157)614152.3
 Poland (n=167)
74.8**52.8**65.6**
  • Note for WTP estimates: estimates are only presented for attribute improvement where level increases were found to be significant in the mixed logit model; costs presented in euros; Mood’s test of equality of median values was used to assess difference between countries.

  • Significant differences between countries: *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

  • †High precision, 0 finger pricks, low effort, low chance of skin irritation, €25 /month, glucose information with trendline, alarm.

  • ‡Moderate precision, 0 finger pricks, moderate effort, moderate chance of skin irritation, €100/month, arrow information, no alarm.

  • §Moderate precision, 0 finger pricks, moderate effort, moderate chance of skin irritation, €25/month, arrow information, no alarm.

  • CGM, continuous glucose monitor; FGM, flash glucose monitor; WTP, willingness to pay.