Table 2

Baseline characteristics of ccCHiP clinic population by diabetes status

CharacteristicccCHiP clinicNo diabetesDiabetesP value*
N=1402N=1080N=322
n (%)n (%)n (%)
Age group (years)
 18–24125 (8.9)117 (10.8)8 (2.5)<0.001
 25–34209 (14.9)180 (16.7)29 (9.0)
 35–44343 (24.5)267 (24.7)76 (23.6)
 45–54394 (28.1)292 (27.1)102 (31.7)
 55–64271 (19.3)185 (17.1)86 (26.7)
 >6460 (4.3)39 (3.6)21 (6.5)
Gender0.238
 Male884 (63.1)672 (62.2)212 (65.8)
 Female518 (36.9)408 (37.8)110 (34.2)
Psychiatric diagnosis†<0.001
 Schizophrenia888 (63.5)654 (60.7)234 (72.9)
 Schizoaffective disorder135 (9.6)104 (9.7)31 (9.7)
 Bipolar disorder170 (12.2)141 (13.0)29 (9.0)
 Depression56 (4.0)43 (4.0)13 (4.0)
 Other psychosis104 (7.4)96 (8.9)8 (2.5)
 Other ICD-10 diagnosis46 (3.3)40 (3.7)6 (1.9)
Antipsychotic use<0.001
 Clozapine±other antipsychotic369 (26.3)256 (23.7)113 (35.1)
 Olanzapine±other antipsychotic254 (18.1)218 (20.2)36 (11.2)
 Other antipsychotic only667 (47.6)515 (47.7)152 (47.2)
 No antipsychotic medication112 (8.0)91 (8.4)21 (6.5)
Fasting blood glucose level (mmol/L)†<0.001
  • <5.6.

810 (61.2)762 (74.6)48 (15.8)
  • ≥5.6 and <7.0.

318 (24.0)259 (25.4)59 (19.5)
  • ≥7.

196 (14.8)0196 (64.7)
HbA1c (%)†<0.001
  • <6.0.

820 (76.1)747 (94.8)73 (25.3)
  • ≥6.0 and <6.5.

82 (7.6)41 (5.2)41 (14.2)
  • ≥6.5%.

175 (16.2)0175 (60.5)
Hypertension<0.001
 Yes450 (32.1)281 (26.0)169 (52.5)
 No952 (67.9)799 (74.0)153 (47.5)
Dyslipidemia0.07
 Yes1295 (92.4)990 (91.7)305 (94.7)
 No107 (7.6)90 (8.3)17 (5.3)
Abdominal circumference†
 Normal176 (14.2)164 (17.1)12 (4.3)<0.001
 Abnormal1063 (85.8)797 (82.9)266 (95.7)
Waist:height ratio†
 Normal173 (13.8)163 (16.8)10 (3.5)<0.001
 Abnormal1083 (86.2)808 (83.2)275 (96.5)
BMI†<0.001
 Normal209 (16.5)192 (19.7)17 (5.9)
 Overweight331 (26.2)270 (27.7)61 (21.1)
 Obese724 (57.3)513 (52.6)211 (73.0)
Smoking status†0.527
 Never454 (33.2)357 (33.8)97 (31.4)
 Previous226 (16.5)169 (16.0)57 (18.4)
 Current686 (50.2)531 (50.2)155 (50.2)
Alcohol consumption level†0.001
 Low risk1206 (87.0)910 (85.4)296 (92.5)
 Risky30 (2.2)23 (2.2)7 (2.2)
 High risk150 (10.8)133 (12.4)17 (5.3)
Father’s ethnicity†0.015
 Mediterranean/Caucasian/white856 (64.6)674 (65.8)182 (60.5)
 African–American13 (1.0)9 (0.9)4 (1.3)
 Pacific Islander51 (3.8)37 (3.6)14 (4.7)
 Middle Eastern82 (6.2)56 (5.4)26 (8.6)
 Asian/Southeast Asian230 (17.3)184 (17.9)46 (15.3)
 Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander29 (2.2)20 (2.0)9 (3.0)
 Indian subcontinent37 (2.8)21 (2.1)16 (5.3)
 Other high-risk28 (2.1)24 (2.3)4 (1.3)
Mother’s ethnicity†<0.001
 Mediterranean/Caucasian/white839 (63.0)665 (64.6)174 (57.6)
 African–American12 (0.9)8 (0.8)4 (1.3)
 Pacific Islander57 (4.3)42 (4.1)15 (5.0)
 Middle Eastern74 (5.6)50 (4.8)24 (7.9)
 Asian/Southeast Asian242 (18.2)192 (18.7)50 (16.6)
 Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander38 (2.9)20 (1.9)18 (6.0)
 Indian subcontinent37 (2.8)23 (2.2)14 (4.6)
 Other high-risk32 (2.4)29 (2.8)3 (1.0)
Marital status†0.395
 Single936 (67.0)732 (68.1)204 (63.3)
 Defacto48 (3.4)39 (3.6)9 (2.8)
 Married87 (6.2)62 (5.8)25 (7.8)
 Separated/divorced210 (15.0)159 (14.8)51 (15.8)
 Widowed22 (1.6)15 (1.4)7 (2.2)
 Unknown94 (6.7)68 (6.3)26 (8.1)
Living arrangements†0.056
 Alone438 (32.9)323 (31.4)115 (38.1)
 Spouse/de facto128 (9.6)98 (9.5)30 (9.9)
 Parents or siblings375 (28.2)309 (30.1)66 (21.9)
 Other family member59 (4.4)47 (4.6)12 (4.0)
 Group of others49 (3.7)34 (3.3)15 (5.0)
 One other (not family)46 (3.5)35 (3.4)11 (3.6)
 Long term hospital11 (0.8)10 (1.0)1 (0.3)
 Supported accommodation72 (5.4)50 (4.8)22 (7.3)
 Boarding house152 (11.4)122 (11.9)30 (9.9)
Educational level†0.002
 Primary42 (3.2)29 (2.8)13 (4.4)
 Secondary676 (51.3)497 (48.7)179 (60.1)
 Postsecondary266 (20.2)216 (21.2)50 (16.7)
 Tertiary289 (21.9)242 (23.7)47 (15.8)
 Unknown46 (3.5)37 (3.6)9 (3.0)
Exercise level†<0.001
 Sedentary503 (38.0)363 (35.6)140 (46.4)
 Minimal exercise270 (20.4)210 (20.6)60 (19.9)
 Lightly active385 (29.1)306 (30.0)79 (26.2)
 Moderately active150 (11.3)127 (12.5)23 (7.6)
 Very/extra active14 (1.1)14 (1.3)0
  • *P values are derived from the Pearson’s χ2 test comparing the distribution of ‘diabetes’ and ‘no diabetes’ groups.

  • †Number not equal to 1402.

  • BMI, body nass index; ccCHiP, Collaborative Centre for Cardiometabolic Health in Psychosis; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; ICD-10, International Classification of Diseases.