Table 1

Characteristics of observational studies included in meta-analysis on the association between arterial stiffness and neuropathy

StudyStudy designNeuropathyDiabetesArterial stiffnessArterial stiffness and neuropathy association, p<0.05
TypeTypeMeasure(s)No adjustmentsAdjustments for age, sex, diabetes, duration, and/or SBP
Aso 200329CSCAN2PWV, cfX
Avci 201430CSPN2PPX
PWV, centralX
Cabezas-Cerrato 200931CSCAN1&2PP
Cardoso 201433CSCAN2PPX
Chen 201534CSPN2PP
PWV, cf
Edmonds 198237CCPN1PWV, femoral-tibial
Fleischer 201438CSCAN1PP
Ha 201239CSPN2PP
PWV, baX
Jarmuzewska 200541CSPN2PP
Jung 201442CSPN2PPX
Kuo 202046CSPNDM & no DMPWV, ba
Laptev 201547CSCAN1AIxX
PWV, ba
Matsuto 199852CSPNDMPWV, centralX
Mogensen 201253CSCAN1PP
Moon 201055CSCAN2PP
Moţăţăianu 201857CSCAN1PPX
Nguyen 201359CSPN2PP
Ohisa 200660CSCAN2PP
PWV, ba
Okada 199261CSPNDMPWV, aorticX
Pek 2015*62CSPN2PWV, cf
Philips 201263CCCAN1PPX
Philips 201764CSCAN2PPX
Refaie 201465CSCAN2PP
Sacre 201266CSCAN2AIxX
PWV, aortic
Salvotelli 201567CSPN2PPX
Scarpello 198068CCPNDMPWV, lower limb
Secrest 201169CSCAN1AIxX
Serhiyenko 201370CCCAN2AIx
Shah 201971CSCAN2AIxX
PWV, cf
Shi 201272CCPN2PWV, carotid
Suh 201073CSPN1&2PWV, baX
Szczyrba 201574CSPN1PWV, cfX
Tanaka 201875CSPN2PP
PWV, ba
Tentolouris 201776CSPN2PP
PWV, cf
Teoh 2011*77CSPN2PWV, carotid-radialX
Wu 201479CSCAN2PWV, ba
Yan 202080CSPN2PPX
Yang 201481CSPN2PWV, baX
Yeboah 201882CSPN2PPX
Yokoyama 200783CSCAN2PP
PWV, ba
PWV, ba
ZZhao 2021 (reference 84)CSPN2PP
Zoppini 201585CSCAN2PPXX
  • ✓ association found between arterial stiffness and neuropathyx no association found between arterial stiffness and neuropathy; - not reported.

  • *only reported by way of abstract; values included in meta-analysis do not control for age, sex, diabetes duration or SBP, other than those that included participants of one sex.65 75

  • 1, type 1 diabetes; 2, type 2 diabetes; AIx, augmentation index; ba, brachial-ankle; CAN, cardiac autonomic neuropathy; CC, case-control; cf, carotid-femoral; CS, cross-sectional; DM, diabetes mellitus; PN, peripheral neuropathy; PP, pulse pressure; PWV, pulse wave velocity; SBP, systolic blood pressure.