Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study population

CharacteristicsBaseline oral glucose tolerance test status
NormalIFGIGTDMTotalP value
n=458n=3n=214n=40n=715
Age (years)<0.001
Mean (SD)11.9 (2.96)15.3 (3.21)12.9 (2.60)13.7 (2.21)12.3 (2.88)
Gender, n (%)0.096
 Male294 (64.2)1 (33.3)126 (58.9)19 (47.5)440 (61.5)
 Female164 (35.8)2 (66.7)88 (41.1)21 (52.5)275 (38.5)
BMI (kg/m2)0.791
 n392318834617
 Mean (SD)31.1 (6.00)34.4 (2.65)31.0 (7.03)31.6 (4.35)31.2 (6.24)
Gestational age, n (%)<0.001
 n370317235580
 Term355 (95.7)1 (33.3)158 (91.9)32 (91.4)546 (94.1)
 Preterm15 (4.0)2 (66.7)14 (8.1)3 (8.6)34 (5.9)
Birth weight, n (%)0.053
 n366317034573
 AGA332 (90.7)3 (100)137 (80.6)28 (82.4)500 (87.3)
 SGA16 (4.4)015 (8.8)2 (5.9)33 (5.8)
 LGA18 (4.9)018 (10.6)4 (11.8)40 (7.0)
Race, n (%)0.502
 n458321440715
 Chinese236 (51.5)1 (33.3)130 (60.7)26 (65.0)393 (55.0)
 Malay144 (31.4)1 (33.3)53 (24.8)8 (20.0)206 (28.8)
 Indian66 (14.4)1 (33.3)27 (12.6)5 (12.5)99 (13.8)
 Other12 (2.6)04 (1.9)1 (2.5)17 (2.4)
Family history, n (%)
 n458321440715
 Hyperlipidemia134 (29.3)1 (33.3)80 (37.4)14 (35.0)229 (32.0)0.311
 DM198 (43.2)3 (100)100 (46.7)30 (75.0)331 (46.3)<0.001
 Hypertension14 (3.1)08 (3.7)1 (2.5)23 (3.2)0.019
 Obesity24 (5.2)09 (4.2)033 (4.6)0.416
Comorbidity, n (%)
 n458321440715
 Hypertension66 (14.4)1 (33.3)52 (24.3)11 (27.5)130 (18.2)0.006
 Hyperlipidemia121 (26.4)1 (33.3)77 (36.0)17 (42.5)216 (30.2)0.025
 Fatty liver151 (33.0)1 (33.3)91 (42.5)22 (55.0)265 (37.1)0.009
 PCOS25 (5.5)027 (12.6)8 (20.0)60 (8.4)<0.001
 OSA206 (45.0)3 (100)66 (30.8)14 (35.0)289 (40.4)<0.001
Presence of 2 comorbidities98 (21.4)1 (33.3)53 (24.8)7 (17.5)159 (22.2)0.635
Presence of 3 comorbidities44 (9.6)1 (33.3)26 (12.1)8 (20.0)79 (11.0)0.111
Presence of 4 comorbidities13 (2.8)08 (3.7)3 (7.5)24 (3.4)0.441
Presence of 5 comorbidities1 (0.2)01 (0.5)1 (2.5)3 (0.4)0.203
Treatment received, n (%)
 Lifestyle advice458 (100)3 (100)214 (100)40 (100)715 (100)
 Metformin39 (8.5)1 (33.3)41 (19.2)26 (65.0)107 (15.0)<0.001
 Insulin3 (0.7)02 (0.9)5 (12.5)10 (1.4)<0.001
 Lipid-lowering drugs423 (92.4)3 (100)189 (88.3)33 (82.5)648 (90.6)0.095
  • P values for categorical and continuous variables are calculated based on Χ2 and ANOVA test, respectively.

  • AGA, appropriate for gestational age; ANOVA, analysis of variance; BMI, body mass index; DM, diabetes mellitus; IFG, impaired fasting glucose; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; LGA, large for gestational age; OSA, obstructive sleep apnea; PCOS, polycystic ovarian syndrome; SGA, small for gestational age.