Table 1

Maternal characteristics

Treatment from early pregnancy group, n=286Treatment from mid-pregnancy group, n=248P value
Maternal age (years)36 (32–39)36 (33–39)0.70
Pre-pregnancy BMI22.6 (20.0–26.7)22.8 (20.1–27.2)0.53
Nullipara137 (48%)99 (40.0%)0.067
Smoking0 (0%)2 (0.8%)0.22
Chronic hypertension14 (4.9%)10 (4.0%)0.68
False-positive early GDMNot applicable124 (50%)
Risk factors of GDM (multiple responses included)
 Pre-pregnancy BMI ≥25 kg/m288 (31%)77 (31%)1.00
 High random blood glucose87 (30%)68 (27%)0.50
 Positive urinary glucose7 (2.5%)7 (2.8%)0.79
 History of LGA1 (0.4%)4 (1.6%)0.19
 Family history of type 2 DM65 (23%)50 (20%)0.53
 History of GDM38 (13%)33 (13%)1.00
 Maternal age ≥35 years187 (65%)176 (71%)0.19
First OGTT fasting value (mg/dL, mmol/L)92 (87–96), 5.1 (4.8–5.3)92 (85–95), 5.1 (4.7–5.3)0.26
First OGTT 1-hour value (mg/dL, mmol/L)160 (132–184), 8.9 (7.3–10.2)167 (139–187), 9.3 (7.7–10.4)0.038
First OGTT 2-hour value (mg/dL, mmol/L)136 (116–160), 7.6 (6.4–8.9)145 (119–164), 8.1 (6.6–9.1)0.11
Second OGTT fasting value (mg/dL, mmol/L)87 (82–92), 4.8 (4.6–4.7)
Second OGTT 1-hour value (mg/dL, mmol/L)159 (135–182), 8.8 (7.5–10.1)
Second OGTT 2-hour value (mg/dL, mmol/L)137 (114–154), 7.6 (6.3–8.6)
  • Values are expressed as median (IQR) or n (%).

  • All cases in the treatment from early pregnancy group were treated as GDM from early pregnancy. In the treatment from mid-pregnancy group, those with early GDM diagnosed by International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) thresholds were rediagnosed at mid-pregnancy, and only those with GDM in mid-pregnancy underwent treatment.

  • BMI, body mass index; DM, diabetes mellitus; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus; LGA, large for gestational age; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test.