Table 2

Pregnancy outcomes

Treatment from early pregnancy group, n=286Treatment from mid-pregnancy group, n=248P value
Gestational weight gain (kg)7.5 (4.1–11.2)8.2 (4.8–11.5)0.19
Insulin therapy54 (19%)37 (15%)0.25
Gestational age (weeks)38.7 (38.1–39.8)38.7 (38.0–40.0)0.71
Preterm labor22 (7.7%)18 (7.3%)0.87
Preterm labor before 28 weeks of gestation4 (1.4%)0 (0.0%)0.13
Birth weight (g)2965 (2666–3183)3028 (2753–3270)0.062
LGA25 (8.8%)25 (10%)0.66
SGA27 (9.4%)12 (4.8%)0.046
Macrosomia1 (0.4%)1 (0.4%)1.000
Apgar score at 5 min <75 (1.8%)2 (0.8%)0.46
Umbilical artery pH<7.108 (2.8%)3 (1.2%)0.24
Pre-eclampsia15 (5.2%)11 (4.4%)0.69
Vaginal delivery179 (63%)153 (62%)0.86
Emergency cesarean delivery32 (11%)32 (13%)0.59
Operative delivery21 (7.3%)17 (6.9%)0.87
NICU admission54 (19%)46 (19%)1.00
Neonatal hypoglycemia16 (5.6%)14 (5.7%)1.00
Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia44 (15%)28 (11%)0.20
RDS4 (1.4%)2 (0.8%)0.69
  • Values are expressed as median (IQR) or n (%).

  • All cases in the treatment from early pregnancy group were treated as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) from early pregnancy. In the treatment from mid-pregnancy group, those with early GDM diagnosed by International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) thresholds were rediagnosed at mid-pregnancy, and only those with GDM in mid-pregnancy underwent treatment. Calculations of the centile of the birth weight were based on fetal growth curves based on a report by the Neonatal Committee of the Japan Pediatric Society published in 2011.

  • LGA, large for gestational age; NICU, neonatal intensive care unit; RDS, respiratory distress syndrome; SGA, small for gestational age.