Table 1

Baseline characteristics

Flash monitoring group
(n=114)
SMBG control group
(n=80)
P value*
Center, no (%)
 Bristol81 (71%)60 (75%)
 Exeter13 (11%)0
 Plymouth8 (7%)8 (10%)
 Swindon12 (11%)12 (15%)
Age,† median (IQR)12 (10, 14)13 (11, 15)0.1793
Male, no (%)48 (42%)45 (56%)0.059
Ethnicity, n (%)
 White94 (82%)67 (84%)0.766
 Asian6 (5.3%)2 (2.5%)
 Black10 (8.8%)6 (7.5%)
 Mixed3 (2.6%)3 (3.8%)
 Other1 (0.9%)2 (2.5%)
IMD decile, n (%)N=112N=790.1662
 1, 232 (29%)22 (28%)
 3, 416 (14%)6 (7.6%)
 5, 625 (22%)17 (22%)
 7, 824 (21%)16 (20%)
 9, 1015 (13%)18 (23%)
Celiac disease, no (%)3 (2.6%)1 (1.3%)0.644
Hypothyroidism, no (%)6 (5.3%)3 (3.8%)0.739
Family history of diabetes, no (%)19 (17%)9 (11%)0.309
Eating disorder, no (%)1 (0.9%)1 (1.3%)1.000
Height,† median (IQR), cm153 (138, 165)161 (142, 172)0.0526
Weight,† median (IQR), kg48 (34, 59)55 (37, 68)0.0455
Time since diagnosis (years),† median (IQR)3.2 (1.3, 5.6)4.3 (1.4, 7.4)0.0926
Type of insulin therapy, no (%)†
 Mutliple daily injection regime95 (83%)66 (83%)1.000
 Pump therapy ±12 (11%)3 (3.8%)0.104
 Unknown7 (6%)11 (14%)
Started Libre2, n (%)7 (6.1%)
HbA1c (mmol/mol),† median (IQR)62 (57, 72)61 (53, 72)0.2751
  • IQR (lower quartile, upper quartile).

  • *P values obtained by Mann-Whitney U test or Fisher’s exact test. IMD decile calculated from the postcode and corresponds to the LSOA that each postcode falls within±those on pump therapy were more likely to be prescribed alternate CGM devices than Libre, and were thus not eligible to be included in this study. Libre2=second-generation flash monitoring device, with built-in alarms.

  • †At flash monitoring implementation date for the ‘flash’ group and at the equivalent date for the controls or for weight, height and HbA1c, the value immediately prior to flash implementation/equivalent date.

  • CGM, continuous glucose monitoring; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; IMD, index of multiple deprivation; LSOA, lower-layer super output area; SMBG, self-monitoring of blood glucose.