Table 3

Odds of EBP for MASH (n=703)

CovariateaOR for EBP
(95% CI)
P value
Race/ethnicity*
 Latino/a/x versus NL White1.82 (0.78 to 4.28)0.20
 NL Black versus NL White0.76 (0.44 to 1.33)
Age
 <59 years, 1 year increase1.00 (0.98 to 1.04)0.17
 >59 years, 1 year increase0.96 (0.92 to 1.00)
Female sex versus male1.08 (0.74 to 1.59)0.69
Insurance group
 Managed care versus government1.63 (0.94 to 2.80)0.05
 Private versus government1.25 (0.75 to 2.09)
 Self-pay versus government0.28 (0.08 to 1.04)
Comorbidities (yes versus no)
 Congestive heart failure0.63 (0.31 to 1.29)0.21
 Coronary artery disease0.71 (0.40 to 1.27)0.25
 Cerebrovascular disease0.70 (0.31 to 1.57)0.39
 Peripheral vascular disease1.07 (0.35 to 3.29)0.91
 Chronic lung disease0.93 (0.55 to 1.58)0.79
 Any malignancy0.97 (0.56 to 1.67)0.91
 Metastatic solid tumor0.31 (0.07 to 1.31)0.11
 Dementia1.90 (0.39 to 9.35)0.43
 Depression1.07 (0.66 to 1.73)0.79
BMI
 Mean BMI <34, 1 unit increase1.12 (1.04 to 1.21)<0.01
 Mean BMI >34, 1 unit increase1.01 (0.98 to 1.06)
Clinical care (yes versus no)
 Endocrinology visit3.14 (2.08 to 4.75)<0.01
 Family medicine visit1.11 (0.73 to 1.68)0.62
 Internal medicine visit1.32 (0.84 to 2.09)0.23
 Urgent care visit1.04 (0.69 to 1.57)0.86
PCP title
 DO versus MD0.84 (0.43 to 1.63)0.11
 NP versus MD0.40 (0.20 to 0.81)
 PA versus MD0.86 (0.42 to 1.76)
 Unspecified versus MD1.35 (0.63 to 2.92)
# of outpatient visits, 1 unit increase1.03 (1.00 to 1.06)0.03
Laboratory values
 Mean HbA1c (%), 1 unit increase1.30 (1.13 to 1.48)<0.01
 Mean ALT (IU/L), 5 units increase0.99 (0.96 to 1.02)0.53
 Mean eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2), 5 unit increase0.99 (0.95 to 1.04)0.73
Mean FIB-4 Score
 High risk versus low risk0.56 (0.35 to 0.90)0.05
 Indeterminate versus low risk0.57 (0.35 to 0.93)
 Missing versus low risk0.70 (0.35 to 1.43)
  • Model was adjusted for: age, sex, insurance status, FIB-4 category, BMI, HbA1c ALT, eGFR, comorbidities (coronary artery disease, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, dementia, chronic lung disease, malignancy, depression), whether patients had any encounter in a family medicine, internal medicine, urgent care, or endocrinology clinic (yes/no for each), and provider type of assigned PCP (medical doctor, doctor of osteopathic medicine, nurse practitioner and physician assistant).

  • *Primary covariate of interest. Results from multivariable logistic regression model.

  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; aOR, adjusted OR; BMI, body mass index; DO, doctor of osteopathic medicine; EBP, evidence-based T2D pharmacotherapy (prescription for pioglitazone and/or glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist); eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; FIB-4, fibrosis-4; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; MASH, metabolic dysfunction-associated steatohepatitis; MD, medical doctor; NL, non-Latino/a/x; NP, nurse practitioner; PA, physician assistant; PCP, primary care physician; T2D, type 2 diabetes.