Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics

CharacteristicsAll patients (n=847)
Age, mean (SD)59.7 (11.9)
Female sex, n (%)524 (61.9)
Race-ethnicity (combined), n (%)*
 NL black101 (11.9)
 NL white627 (74.0)
 NL Other or multiple races46 (5.4)
 Latino/a/x39 (4.6)
 Not reported/declined34 (4.0)
First race Indicated, n (%)
 Black111 (13.1)
 White655 (77.3)
 Asian29 (3.4)
 Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander5 (0.6)
 American Indian or Alaskan Native11 (1.3)
 Other21 (2.5)
 Not reported15 (1.8)
Multiracial indicated, n (%)6 (0.7)
Latino/a/x ethnicity, n (%)39 (4.6)
Insurance status, n (%)
 Government465 (55.0)
 Managed care162 (19.2)
 Private188 (22.3)
 Self-Pay26 (3.1)
 Other4 (0.5)
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Hypertension390 (46.0)
 Hyperlipidemia352 (41.6)
 Chronic kidney disease121 (14.3)
 Congestive heart failure58 (6.9)
 Coronary artery disease106 (12.5)
 Cerebrovascular disease46 (5.4)
 Peripheral vascular disease21 (2.5)
 ASCVD†157 (18.5)
 Chronic lung disease107 (12.6)
 Any malignancy131 (15.5)
 Metastatic solid tumor18 (2.1)
 Dementia10 (1.2)
 Depression136 (16.1)
 Bladder cancer0 (0.0)
 Fractures87 (10.3)
Mean BMI, mean (SD)‡34.5 (7.1)
Smoking status, n (%)
 Current smoker59 (7.0)
 Former smoker330 (39.0)
 Never smoker458 (54.1)
Diabetes medication use, n (%)
 Metformin529 (62.5)
 Sulfonylureas260 (30.7)
 DPP4 inhibitors125 (14.8)
 SGLT2 inhibitors150 (17.7)
 Insulin528 (62.3)
 EBP295 (34.8)
  GLP-1RA alone240 (28.3)
  Pioglitazone alone30 (3.5)
  Both Pioglitazone and GLP-1RA25 (3.0)
Clinical care, n (%)
 Any PCP encounter685 (80.9)
 Type of provider listed as PCP
  MD590 (69.7)
  DO73 (8.6)
  NP77 (9.1)
  PA52 (6.1)
  Unknown55 (6.5)
 Any endocrinology encounter496 (58.6)
 Hepatology consult31 (3.7)
 Hepatology follow-up visit192 (22.7)
Number of outpatient encounters, mean (SD)10.25 (7.7)
Average laboratory values, mean (SD)c
 HbA1c (%)7.5 (1.5)
 LDL, mg/dL88.7 (36.5)
 HDL, mg/dL46.6 (40.7)
 Triglycerides, mg/dL193 (158.6)
 ALT, IU/L46.0 (37.5)
 AST, IU/L48.0 (55.6)
 GGT IU/L114.7 (159.3)
 Albumin, g/L3.8 (0.8)
 Platelet count, × 109/L193.6 (92.7)
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m273.6 (24.6)
FIB-4 Score, mean (SD)3.8 (5.2)
FIB-4 Score, categories, n (%)
 Low risk294 (34.7)
 Indeterminate risk176 (20.8)
 High risk265 (31.3)
 Missing112 (13.2)
Liver imaging and biopsy, n (%)
 Liver ultrasound360 (42.5)
 Transient elastography53 (6.3)
 CT abdomen156 (18.4)
 MRI abdomen166 (19.6)
 Liver biopsy52 (6.1)
  • *Combined race-ethnicity variable that was used for analyses.

  • †ASCVD is defined as a diagnosis code for any of the following conditions: coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease, generalized and aortic atherosclerosis.

  • ‡Missing data: BMI (n=2), HbA1c (n=38), LDL (n=128), HDL (n=113), triglycerides (n=104), ALT (n=36), AST (n=36), GGT (n=799), albumin (n=36), platelet count (n=79), eGFR (n=41).

  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; ASCVD, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; DO, doctor of osteopathic medicine; DPP4, dipeptidyl peptidase-4; EBP, evidence-based type 2 diabetes pharmacotherapy (ie, prescription for pioglitazone and/or GLP-1RA); eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; FIB-4, fibrosis-4; GGT, gamma glutamyltransferase; GLP-1RA, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HDL, high density lipoprotein; LDL, low density lipoprotein; MD, medical doctor; NL, non-Latino/a/x; NP, nurse practitioner; PA, physician assistant; PCP, primary care physician; SGLT2, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2.