Table 1

Participant characteristics

Overall
(N=413)
Age (years), mean±SD32±4
 18–24, n (%)17 (4)
 25–34, n (%)282 (68)
 35–45, n (%)114 (28)
 Range19–42
Race*, n (%)
 American Indian/Alaskan Native2 (<1)
 Asian19 (5)
 Black/African American36 (9)
 White323 (78)
 Multiple17 (4)
 Unknown or not reported16 (4)
Ethnicity†, n (%)
 Hispanic29 (7)
 Not Hispanic379 (92)
 Unknown or not reported5 (1)
Body mass index (kg/m2), mean±SD25.3±5.0
 Underweight (<18.5), n (%)10 (2)
 Normal (18.5–<25.0), n (%)241 (58)
 Overweight (25.0–<30), n (%)94 (23)
 Obese (≥30), n (%)68 (16)
HbA1c (% (mmol/mol)) prior to 20 weeks’ gestation, mean±SD5.1±0.2 (32±2.2)
 4.2–4.9 (22–30), n (%)99 (24)
 5.0–5.4 (31–36), n (%)272 (66)
 5.5–5.6 (37–38), n (%)42 (10)
 Range4.2–5.6 (22–38)
Gravida, median (IQR)2 (1–3)
 1, n (%)137 (33)
 2, n (%)128 (31)
 3, n (%)76 (18)
 4, n (%)38 (9)
 ≥5, n (%)34 (8)
Parity, median (IQR)1 (0–1)
 0, n (%)192 (46)
 1, n (%)160 (39)
 2, n (%)51 (12)
 ≥3, n (%)10 (2)
Gestational age at study enrollment (weeks), mean±SD14±2
 1st trimester, n (%)252 (61)
 2nd trimester, n (%)161 (39)
  • *Race information was solicited from the participant in response to the following question: ‘Which of the following racial designations best describes you?’. The race categories (number of participants) of the 17 participants who self-reported as multiracial are as follows: black and white (4), Asian and white (3), American Indian/Alaskan Native and white (2), Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander and white (2), American Indian/Alaskan Native and Asian and black and white (1), white and unspecified (1), unspecified (4).

  • †Hispanic ethnicity information was solicited in response to the following question: ‘Do you consider yourself to be Hispanic/Latino or not Hispanic/Latino?’. The ‘not Hispanic’ category includes one participant who self-reported as Jewish in the free response section after participant indicated they identified with more than one race.

  • HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c.