Table 2

Glycemic profiles of uncomplicated pregnancies, overall and by trimester

Entire gestational period1st trimester2nd trimester3rd trimester
Number of participants413118413355
Days of CGM readings, median (IQR)123 (86–147)18 (14–25)69 (50–80)53 (36–64)
Mean glucose—mg/dL (mmol/L), mean±SD98±7
(5.4±0.4)
103±7
(5.7±0.4)
98±7
(5.4±0.4)
98±8
(5.4±0.4)
 <90 mg/dL (<5.0 mmol/L), n (%)42 (10)2 (2)53 (13)57 (16)
 90–<95 mg/dL (5.0–<5.3 mmol/L), n (%)89 (22)10 (8)83 (20)74 (21)
 95–<100 mg/dL (5.3–<5.6 mmol/L), n (%)121 (29)31 (26)114 (28)85 (24)
 100–<105 mg/dL (5.6–<5.8 mmol/L), n (%)93 (23)33 (28)92 (22)82 (23)
 105–<110 mg/dL (5.8–<6.1 mmol/L), n (%)44 (11)26 (22)45 (11)31 (9)
 110–<120 mg/dL (6.1–<6.7 mmol/L), n (%)24 (6)16 (14)26 (6)22 (6)
 ≥120 mg/dL (≥6.7 mmol/L), n (%)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)4 (1)
Glucose SD—mg/dL (mmol/L), mean±SD19±3
(1.1±0.2)
18±3
(1.0±0.2)
18±3
(1.0±0.2)
19±3
(1.1±0.2)
Glucose coefficient of variation (%), mean±SD19%±3%18%±2%19%±3%20%±3%
% time 63–120 mg/dL (3.5–6.7 mmol/L), mean±SD85%±7%83%±8%85%±7%84%±8%
 Median (quartiles)86% (82–89%)84% (79–89%)87% (83–90%)85% (80–90%)
 95–<99%, n (%)2 (<1)2 (2)5 (1)6 (2)
 90–<95%, n (%)78 (19)25 (21)101 (24)73 (21)
 85–<90%, n (%)159 (38)23 (19)148 (36)109 (31)
 80–<85%, n (%)94 (23)35 (30)92 (22)76 (21)
 70–<80%, n (%)62 (15)24 (20)53 (13)71 (20)
 50–<70%, n (%)18 (4)9 (8)14 (3)19 (5)
 <50%, n (%)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)1 (<1)
% time 63–140 mg/dL (3.5–7.8 mmol/L), mean±SD94%±3%95%±3%95%±3%94%±4%
 Median (quartiles)95% (93–96%)95% (93–97%)95% (94–97%)95% (92–96%)
% time <70 mg/dL (<3.9 mmol/L), median (quartiles)4.2% (2.1–6.9%)1.8% (1.0–3.6%)3.5% (1.8–6.6%)4.7% (2.1–8.7%)
Area over the curve 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L), median (quartiles)0.4 (0.2–0.7)0.2 (0.1–0.3)0.3 (0.2–0.6)0.4 (0.2–0.8)
% time <63 mg/dL (<3.5 mmol/L), median (quartiles)1.8% (0.9–3.2%)0.8% (0.4–1.6%)1.5% (0.8–3.0%)2.0% (0.8–3.9%)
 0%, n (%)0 (0)2 (2)2 (<1)3 (<1)
 >0–<0.5%, n (%)45 (11)33 (28)62 (15)50 (14)
 0.5–<1%, n (%)70 (17)34 (29)79 (19)44 (12)
 1–<2%, n (%)106 (26)26 (22)102 (25)80 (23)
 2–<4%, n (%)117 (28)18 (15)102 (25)91 (26)
 ≥4%, n (%)75 (18)5 (4)66 (16)87 (25)
Area over the curve 63 mg/dL (3.5 mmol/L), median (quartiles)0.2 (0.1–0.3)0.1 (0.0–0.2)0.2 (0.1–0.3)0.2 (0.1–0.4)
% time <54 mg/dL (<3.0 mmol/L), median (quartiles)0.7% (0.4–1.3%)0.3% (0.1–0.8%)0.6% (0.3–1.3%)0.8% (0.3–1.5%)
Area over the curve 54 mg/dL (3.0 mmol/L), median (quartiles)0.1 (0.0–0.1)0.0 (0.0–0.1)0.1 (0.0–0.1)0.1 (0.0–0.1)
% time >120 mg/dL (6.7 mmol/L), median (quartiles)11% (7–16%)15% (9–19%)11% (7–16%)11% (7–17%)
 >0–<5%, n (%)43 (10)6 (5)54 (13)57 (16)
 5–<10%, n (%)135 (33)26 (22)134 (32)101 (28)
 10–<15%, n (%)110 (27)28 (24)109 (26)77 (22)
 15–<20%, n (%)64 (15)29 (25)60 (15)59 (17)
 20–<30%, n (%)46 (11)23 (19)43 (10)46 (13)
 30–<50%, n (%)15 (4)6 (5)13 (3)14 (4)
 ≥50%, n (%)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)1 (<1)
Area under the curve 120 mg/dL (6.7 mmol/L), median (quartiles)1.5 (0.9–2.4)2.1 (1.2–3.1)1.4 (0.8–2.3)1.5 (0.8–2.7)
% time >140 mg/dL (>7.8 mmol/L), median (quartiles)2.5% (1.3–4.1%)3.5% (1.7– 5.4%)2.2% (1.1–3.9%)2.3% (1.0–4.6%)
Area under the curve 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L), median (quartiles)0.30 (0.13–0.57)0.41 (0.19–0.76)0.25 (0.11–0.53)0.26 (0.10–0.57)
Morning glucose
 Mean glucose at 05:00*—mg/dL (mmol/L), mean±SD93±9
(5.2±0.5)
98±9
(5.4±0.5)
93±9
(5.2±0.5)
93±10
(5.2±0.5)
 Glucose SD at 05:00* —mg/dL (mmol/L), mean±SD14±3
(0.8±0.2)
12±5
(0.7±0.3)
13±3
(0.7±0.2)
14±3
(0.8±0.2)
 Mean glucose at 06:00†—mg/dL (mmol/L), mean±SD93±8
(5.2±0.4)
97±9
(5.4±0.5)
93±9
(5.2±0.5)
92±10
(5.1±0.6)
 Glucose SD at 06:00†—mg/dL (mmol/L), mean±SD13±3
(0.7±0.2)
11±6
(0.6±0.3)
13±3
(0.7±0.2)
14±4
(0.8±0.2)
  • *Includes CGM data from 04:45 to 05:15.

  • †Includes CGM data from 05:45 to 06:15.

  • CGM, continuous glucose monitoring.