Table 2

Interval values for weight, HbA1c, blood pressure, self-reported physical activity, and use of renin–angiotensin system (RAS) blocking, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor medications, and metformin during intervention, post-intervention and overall

Baseline age (years)During interventionPost-interventionOverall
ILIDSEP valueILIDSEP valueILIDSEP value
All
 Weight (kg)*94.7±0.298.8±0.2<0.0192.8±0.294.5±0.2<0.0193.8±0.296.6±0.2<0.01
 HbA1c (%)*7.01±0.027.22±0.02<0.017.45±0.027.47±0.020.467.23±0.027.35±0.02<0.01
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)*124.1±0.2125.7±0.2<0.01130.1±0.3129.3±0.30.04127.1±0.2127.5±0.20.26
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)*66.6±0.166.6±0.10.9366.8±0.165.8±0.1<0.0166.7±0.166.2±0.1<0.01
 Physical activity (kcal/week)*†1317.7±26.8892.0±26.9<0.01647.6±30.7589.2±30.80.18982.6±24.6740.6±24.7<0.01
 RAS blocking meds (% of participants)‡70.8
(69.4, 72.2)
75.5
(74.3, 76.8)
<0.0177.4
(75.6, 79.1)
79.3
(77.6, 80.9)
0.1274.2
(72.9, 75.6)
77.5
(76.2, 78.7)
<0.01
 GLP-1 meds (% of participants)‡§5.8
(5.2, 6.5)
7.8
(7.1, 8.6)
<0.0110.7
(9.6, 11.8)
11.9
(10.8, 13.2)
0.127.9
(7.2, 8.7)
9.7
(8.9, 10.5)
<0.01
 SGLT2 meds (% of participants)‡¶3.5
(3.0, 4.1)
3.3
(2.8, 3.8)
0.50
 Metformin (% of participants)‡62.4
(60.9, 63.9)
67.7
(66.3, 69.1)
<0.0161.7
(59.6, 63.8)
63.2
(61.0, 65.3)
0.3562.1
(60.5, 63.6)
65.5
(63.9, 67.0)
<0.01
<60
 Weight (kg)*96.9±0.2100.4±0.2<0.0194.8±0.296.3±0.2<0.0195.9±0.298.3±0.2<0.01
 HbA1c (%)*7.18±0.037.38±0.03<0.017.58±0.037.63±0.030.187.38±0.037.51±0.03<0.01
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)*123.4±0.3124.6±0.30.01129.3±0.3128.4±0.40.09126.3±0.3126.5±0.30.67
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)*67.7±0.267.6±0.20.7267.5±0.266.8±0.20.0167.6±0.267.2±0.20.10
 Physical activity (kcal/week)*†1290.7±35.6893.9±36.3<0.01718.8±39.4651.3±39.90.231004.8±32.4772.6±32.9<0.01
 RAS blocking meds (% of participants)‡71.6
(69.7, 73.4)
74.6
(72.8, 76.3)
0.0279.8
(77.7, 81.8)
81.0
(78.9, 83.0)
0.4175.9
(74.2, 77.6)
78.0
(76.3, 79.6)
0.09
 GLP-1 meds (% of participants)‡§6.8
(6.0, 7.7)
9.2
(8.2, 10.4)
<0.0113.6
(12.1, 15.2)
15.2
(13.5, 16.9)
0.179.7
(8.7, 10.7)
11.9
(10.8, 13.1)
<0.01
 SGLT2 meds (% of participants)‡¶4.2
(3.5, 5.0)
4.2
(3.5, 5.0)
0.94
 Metformin (% of participants)‡66.1
(64.2, 67.9)
70.6
(68.7, 72.3)
<0.0165.9
(63.3, 68.4)
67.9
(65.3, 70.4)
0.2766.0
(64.1, 67.8)
69.3
(67.3, 71.1)
0.02
≥60
 Weight (kg)*91.7±0.296.4±0.2<0.0189.9±0.292.0±0.2<0.0190.8±0.294.2±0.2<0.01
 HbA1c (%)*6.78±0.027.01±0.02<0.017.28±0.037.25±0.030.5227.03±0.027.13±0.02<0.01
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)*125.1±0.3127.1±0.3<0.01131.2±0.4130.4±0.40.18128.2±0.4128.8±0.40.24
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)*65.1±0.265.2±0.20.5665.8±0.264.5±0.2<0.0165.5±0.264.8±0.20.01
 Physical activity (kcal/week)*†1351.6±40.6889.8±40.2<0.01537.2±49.1500.1±48.70.59944.4±38.0695.0±37.6<0.01
 RAS blocking meds (% of participants)‡69.8
(67.6, 71.8)
76.8
(74.9, 78.6)
<0.0173.1
(70.0, 75.9)
76.1
(73.0, 78.8)
0.15671.4
(69.2, 73.6)
76.4
(74.4, 78.4)
<0.01
 GLP-1 meds (% of participants)‡§4.5
(3.7, 5.5)
5.9
(4.9, 7.0)
0.056.1
(5.0, 7.6)
7.2
(5.8, 9.0)
0.285.3
(4.4, 6.3)
6.5
(5.5, 7.8)
0.09
 SGLT2 meds (% of participants)‡¶2.3
(1.6, 3.3)
1.7
(1.2, 2.5)
0.24
 Metformin (% of participants)‡57.3
(54.9, 59.6)
64.0
(61.6, 66.3)
<0.0155.6
(52.1, 59.1)
56.3
(52.6, 59.9)
0.8056.5
(53.9, 58.9)
60.2
(57.5, 62.8)
0.04
  • *Mean±SE.

  • †Self-reported non-occupational physical activity from the Paffenbarger questionnaire,19 available for a subset of 2402 participants at baseline, year 1 and year 4 and for all participants at year 8 and afterwards.

  • ‡Mean with 95% CIs.

  • §Available from year 2 onward.

  • ¶Available from year 10 onward.

  • DSE, diabetes support and education; ILI, intensive lifestyle intervention.