Table 1

Baseline characteristics of participants with young-onset diabetes in the PRISM-RCT

NObservationsNObservations
Demographics, socio-economic status and social habitsMedications
Age (years)88440.68±6.54Glucose-lowering drugs, n (%)877844 (96.2)
Men, n (%)884500 (56.6) Insulin, n (%)884245 (27.7)
Employed (full-time or part-time), n (%)879730 (83.0) GLP-1 RA, n (%)88448 (5.4)
Manual worker among the employed, n (%)859190 (22.1) Oral glucose-lowering drugs, n (%)884827 (93.6)
High school or above, n (%)883408 (46.2)Blood pressure-lowering drugs, n (%)884528 (59.7)
Current or former tobacco use, n (%)878285 (32.5) Renin-angiotensin system inhibitor, n (%)876426 (48.6)
Regular or occasional alcohol use, n (%)878321 (36.6)Lipid-regulating drugs, n (%)884526 (59.5)
Family history of diabetes, n (%)871651 (74.7) Statin, n (%)874477 (54.6)
 History of diabetes of father, n (%)872391 (44.8)Treatment target attainment, n (%)
 History of diabetes of mother, n (%)873409 (46.8)Conventional targets
 History of diabetes of both parents, n (%)873172 (19.7) HbA1c <7.0%, n (%)884385 (43.6)
 History of diabetes of siblings, n (%)871167 (19.2) Blood pressure <130/80 mm Hg, n (%)884368 (41.6)
Metabolic risk factors  LDL-cholesterol <2.6 mmol/L (or <1.8 mmol/L
  in presence of ASCVD), n (%)
843564 (66.9)
Age of diagnosis (years)88434 (29, 38)
Duration of diabetes (years)8847 (3, 12) All three targets above, n (%)879126 (14.3)
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)8847.97±2.86Strict targets (defined in secondary outcomes)
HbA1c (%)8847.52±1.66 HbA1c <6.2%, n (%)884138 (15.6)
BMI (kg/m2)88428.40±5.77 Blood pressure <120/80 mm Hg, n (%)884241 (27.3)
Overweight, n (%)884741 (83.8) LDL-cholesterol <1.8 mmol/L, n (%)843207 (24.6)
General obesity, n (%)884454 (51.4) Triglycerides <1.2 mmol/L, n (%)878303 (34.5)
Waist circumference (cm) (men)49599.77±13.99 Waist circumference <80 cm in women or <85 cm in men, n (%)876118 (13.5)
Waist circumference (cm) (women)38193.91±13.82 Attainment of three or more targets above, n (%)841115 (13.7)
Central obesity, n (%)876694 (79.2)Patient-reported outcomes and psychological-behavioral parameters
SBP (mm Hg)884128.77±16.74EQ-5D index value (quality of life)8560.88 (0.87, 0.96)
DBP (mm Hg)88380.08±11.49DASS-21 (negative emotions), total score8529.00 (3.00, 17.00)
Hypertension, n (%)883589 (66.7)DASS-21 score ≥17, n (%)852224 (26.3)
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)8394.34±0.90PHQ-9 (depression), total score8524.00 (1.00, 7.00)
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)8741.19±0.31PHQ-9 score ≥7, n (%)852261 (30.6)
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)8432.26±0.76CDDS-15 (diabetes distress), total score84040.95±12.53
Triglycerides (mmol/L)8781.40 (1.00, 2.20)CDDS-15 score ≥45, n (%)840316 (37.6)
Dyslipidemia, n (%)876669 (76.4)DES-20 (self-efficacy), total score85655.58±10.37
Estimated GFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)884107.21 (94.17, 115.04)SDSCA-15 (self-care), mean score
Albuminuria, n (%)878311 (35.4) Diet8593.75 (2.75, 4.50)
 Microalbuminuria, n (%)878210 (23.9) Exercise8592.00 (1.00, 3.00)
 Macroalbuminuria, n (%)878101 (11.5) Blood glucose monitoring8461.00 (0.00, 2.00)
Diabetes education, self-management and hypoglycemia Foot care8563.00 (2.33, 4.67)
Self-reported hypoglycemia in last 3 months, n (%)875232 (26.5) Medication3984.00 (2.33, 4.67)
Self-monitoring of blood glucose per week, n (%)866373 (43.1)CQ-4 (medication adherence), total score8524.00 (3.00, 4.00)
Physical activity ≥3 times per week, n (%)875157 (17.9) Medication adherence852
Good adherence to balanced diet, n (%)872307 (35.2) High adherence, n (%)484 (56.8)
Education by dietitian, n (%)875692 (79.1) Intermediate adherence, n (%)296 (34.7)
Education by podiatrist, n (%)876165 (18.8) Low adherence, n (%)72 (8.5)
Education by diabetes nurse, n (%)875751 (85.8)
Complications and comorbidities
Cardiovascular disease, n (%)88446 (5.2)Chronic kidney disease, n (%)88435 (4.0)
 Coronary artery disease, n (%)88430 (3.4)End-stage kidney disease—non-dialysis, n (%)8844 (0.5)
 Stroke, n (%)88411 (1.2)History of all-site cancer, n (%)88427 (3.1)
 Peripheral artery disease, n (%)8846 (0.7)Sensory neuropathy, n (%)8783 (0.3)
 Congestive heart failure, n (%)8847 (0.8)Retinopathy, n (%)879121 (13.8)
  • EQ-5D: score ranges from 0 to 1, where 1 represents full health and 0 represents a health state equivalent to death; DASS-21: score ranges from 0 to 63, a higher score indicates a higher severity/frequency of negative emotion states of depression/anxiety/stress; PHQ-9: score ranges from 0 to 27, a higher score indicates a higher severity of depression; CDDS-15: score ranges from 0 to 90, a higher score indicates a high level of diabetes distress; DES-20: score ranges from 0 to 80; a higher score indicates a higher level of patient empowerment; SDSCA-15: score for each domain of diabetes self-care activities shown ranges from 0 to 7 days/week practicing appropriate corresponding diabetes self-care activities; CQ-4: score ranges from 0 to 4, a higher score indicates a lower level of medication adherence.

  • For more detailed baseline profiles of the participants and comparison between JADE-PRISM and JADE-only groups, please refer online supplemental table S6.

  • CDDS-15, 15-item Chinese Diabetes Distress Scale; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CQ-4, 4-item Compliance Questionnaire; DASS-21, 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale; DES-20, 20-item Diabetes Empowerment Scale; EQ-5D, 5-item EuroQol for Quality of Life; GFR, glomerular filtration rate; GLP-1 RA, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HDL-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; JADE, Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation; LDL-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PRISM, Precision Medicine to Redefine Insulin Secretion and Monogenic Diabetes; RCT, randomized controlled trial; SDSCA-15, 15-item Summary of Diabetes Self Care Activities Assessment.