Table 2

Additional medical history and risk factors obtained through direct interview by endocrinologists and biogenetic markers shared with the JADE-PRISM group

Number of patientsObservations
Family history of diabetes, n (%)438321 (73.3)
History of diabetes of father, n (%)439203 (46.2)
Age of diagnosis of father17651.88±12.37
History of diabetes of mother, n (%)440198 (45.0)
Age of diagnosis of mother17649.23±13.59
History of diabetes of both parents, n (%)44090 (20.5)
History of diabetes of siblings, n (%)43877 (17.6)
Age of diagnosis of siblings6336.96±10.28
Perinatal history and development
Gestational age, n (%)108
 Preterm: <37 weeks8 (7.4)
 Early term: 37–38 weeks15 (13.9)
 Full-term: 39–40 weeks71 (65.7)
 Late term: 41 weeks10 (9.3)
 Post-term: 42 weeks4 (3.7)
Birth weight, n (%)329
 Low birth weight: <2.5 kg72 (21.9)
 Normal birth weight: 2.5–4.5 kg219 (66.6)
 Large birth weight: >4.5 kg38 (11.6)
Use of oral steroid during childhood, n (%)41924 (5.7)
Childhood obesity, n (%)426216 (50.7)
Peak body mass index (kg/m2)40031.06±6.73
Age of peak weight (years)26129.42±8.55
Significant medical history, n (%)42240 (9.5)
Mental illness, n (%)42844 (10.3)
History of suicidal attempt, n (%)42015 (3.6)
Thalassemia35927 (7.5)
Thyroid disease42821 (4.9)
Polycystic ovary syndrome12722 (17.3)
Hepatitis B carrier43431 (7.1)
History of events associated with pregnancy in women
Hyperglycemia8457 (67.9)
Hyperglycemia requiring insulin treatment8739 (44.8)
Pre-eclampsia837 (8.4)
Adverse pregnancy outcomes8114 (17.3)
Biogenetic markers
Carriers of likely pathogenic or pathogenic rare variants of monogenic diabetes genes, n (%)44120 (4.5)
Monogenic diabetes, n (%)44111 (2.5)
GADA positivity (≥5.0 U/mL), n (%)44122 (5.0)
Fasting C-peptide (nmol/L)4410.59 (0.38, 0.89)
Fasting C-peptide ≥0.2 nmol/L, n (%)441403 (91.4)
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)4418.00±2.73
HbA1c4417.56±1.62
HOMA2 index
 HOMA2-%B40351.90 (35.05, 85.00)
 HOMA2-IR4031.61 (1.12, 2.27)
 HOMA2-%B <50403189 (46.9%)
 HOMA2-IR >1.8403156 (38.7%)
  • Childhood obesity: self-reported among top 10% body weight in class.

  • Calculation of HOMA2-%B and HOMA2-IR was limited to patients with a fasting plasma glucose range of 3.0–25.0 mmol/L and fasting serum C-peptide of 0.2–3.5 nmol/L.

  • GADA, glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HOMA2-%B, Homeostasis Model Assessment of beta-cell function (%); HOMA2-IR, Homeostasis Model Assessment of insulin resistance; JADE, Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation; PRISM, Precision Medicine to Redefine Insulin Secretion and Monogenic Diabetes.