Table 1

Characteristics of SwissDiab patients with T2DM, overall and with CKD, the latter further stratified by treatment with SGLT2i

CharacteristicsPatients with T2DM (n=364)Patients with T2DM and CKDP value*
All
(n=172)
With SGLT2i
(n=56)
Without SGLT2i
(n=116)
Age, years65.7 (58.2–72.7)69.0 (63.3–75.2)66.0 (59.8–75.0)69.5 (64.7–75.4)0.03
Females, no (%)95 (26.1)43 (25.0)14 (25.0)29 (25.0)1.00
Diabetes duration, years14.0 (8.0–21.0)†18.0 (11.5–25.0)16 (9–23)18 (13–25)0.16
Smokers, no (%)71 (19.5)29 (16.9)11 (19.6)18 (15.5)0.50
HbA1c, %7.2 (6.5–7.9)‡7.3 (6.7–8.2)‡7.5 (6.9–8.2)7.2 (6.7–8.2)‡0.14
HbA1c, mmol/mol55 (48–63)‡56 (50–66)‡58.5 (51.9–65.6)55.2 (49.7–66.1)‡0.14
BMI, kg/m230.4 (27.6–34.4)†30.8 (28.2–35.1)30.7 (27.4–36.0)30.8 (28.6–34.7)0.63
BMI >28 kg/m2, no (%)261 (71.7)133 (77.3)39 (69.6)94 (81.0)0.09
SBP, mm Hg133 (122–145)†135 (126–147)136 (124–146)134 (127–149)0.70
DBP, mm Hg80 (74–85)†79 (74–83)79 (74–85)79 (74–83)0.83
Hypertension, no (%)295 (81.0)166 (96.5)54 (96.4)112 (96.6)0.97
Total cholesterol, mmol/L3.9 (3.3–4.7)†3.8 (3.3–4.7)†3.8 (3.4–4.8)3.8 (3.2–4.7)†0.56
Triglycerides, mmol/L1.7 (1.2–2.4)1.9 (1.3–2.9)2.1 (1.4–2.9)1.8 (1.2–2.6)0.22
HDL-cholesterol, mmol/L1.1 (1.0–1.3)†1.1 (0.9–1.3)†1.1 (0.9–1.2)1.1 (0.9–1.3)†0.16
LDL-cholesterol, mmol/L2.4 (1.9–2.9)†2.3 (1.9–2.9)†2.4 (2.1–3.0)2.3 (1.8–2.8)†0.13
Retinopathy, no (%)53 (14.6)†33 (19.3)†7 (12.7)†26 (22.4)0.13
Neuropathy, no (%)202 (55.5)123 (71.5)36 (64.3)87 (75.0)0.14
CVD, no (%)124 (34.1)78 (45.4)24 (42.9)54 (46.6)0.65
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m278.6 (56.7–95.0)†55.0 (44.3–80.0)63.3 (52.3–84.0)50.4 (39.4–76.8)0.002
ACR, mg/mmol2.2 (1.1–8.6)§8.4 (3.3–24.8)¶8.4 (5.2–26.4)**8.2 (2.6–24.8)††0.25
CKD definition, no (%)0.07‡‡
 Reduced eGFR44 (25.6)9 (16.1)35 (30.2)0.05
 Persistent albuminuria71 (41.3)29 (51.8)42 (36.2)0.05
 Both57 (33.1)18 (32.1)39 (33.6)0.85
KDIGO risk stratification, no (%)0.21‡‡
 Low191 (52.5)
 Moderately increased85 (23.4)85 (49.4)32 (57.1)53 (45.7)0.16
 High46 (12.6)46 (26.7)15 (26.8)31 (26.7)0.99
 Very high41 (11.3)41 (23.8)9 (16.1)32 (27.6)0.10
Medication, no (%)
 Insulin227 (62.4)127 (73.8)50 (89.3)77 (66.4)0.001
 Metformin267 (73.4)115 (66.9)46 (82.1)69 (59.5)0.003
 Classic OADs289 (79.4)127 (73.8)48 (85.7)79 (68.1)0.01
 Antihypertensives295 (81.0)166 (96.5)54 (96.4)112 (96.6)0.97
 RAASi268 (73.6)153 (89.0)52 (92.9)101 (87.1)0.26
 SGLT2i138 (37.9)56 (32.6)56 (100)
 GLP-1 RA107 (29.4)52 (30.2)5 (8.9)47 (40.5)0.00002
  • If not otherwise specified, data are median values with IQR in brackets.

  • *Comparing patients with and without SGLT2i using Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables and Χ2 test for categorical variables.

  • †Information missing for one patient.

  • ‡Information missing for two patients.

  • §Information missing for 40 patients.

  • ¶Information missing for 23 patients.

  • **Information missing for six patients.

  • ††Information missing for 17 patients.

  • ‡‡Χ2 test, 2×3 contingency table.

  • ACR, albumin–creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin A1c; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; KDIGO, Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; OADs, oral antidiabetic drugs (sulfonylurea, biguanides, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors); GLP-1 RA, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist; RAASi, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SGLT2i, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor; SwissDiab, Swiss Diabetes Registry; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.